Session Index

S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices I
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  13:00-15:00
Presider: Prof. Jui-Nung Liu (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan) Prof. Yih-Peng Chiou (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
13:00 - 13:30
Manuscript ID.  0632
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-I001
Invited Speaker:
Reuven Gordon
Single Molecule Protein Analysis with Shaped Plasmonic Apertures
Reuven Gordon, University of Victoria (Canada)

Since 2011, our group has been working on the trapping and analysis of proteins with nanoapertures in metal films. This talk will review the technique, recent advances (including tracking proteins, trapping proteins down to 4 kDa, analysis of the impact of mutation), and briefly highlight exciting developments from others in the field.

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13:30 - 13:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0062
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O001
Yu-Shi Tsai Strong Coupling in Localized Surface Plasmon Nanolasers
Yu-Shi Tsai, Jun-Wei Liao, Zhen-Ting Huang, Tien-Chang Lu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Surface plasmons offer advantageous properties for enhancing light-matter interactions, primarily through their ability to tightly confine light fields. By employing metallic nanoholes as the plasmonic nanocavity and InP nanowires as the gain medium, we have successfully achieved lasing of localized surface plasmons at room temperature, making them highly suitable for communication applications. Additionally, our plasmonic nanolasers demonstrate superior features such as elevated spontaneous emission coupling factors, reduced mode volumes, and decreased power consumption, all attributed to the enhanced interactions between light and matter.

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13:45 - 14:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0221
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O002
Annada Sankar Sadhu High-Bandwidth White-Light Emitting Diodes Combining a Semipolar (20–21) Blue Micro-LED with Perovskite Quantum Dots and Organic Emitters for Solid-State Lighting and Visible Light Communication
Annada Sankar Sadhu, Yi-Hua Pai, Li-Yin Chen, Chung-An Hsieh, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Hao-Wu Lin, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Hao-Chung Kuo, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We propose high-bandwidth white-light emitting diodes (WLEDs) that combine a single-pixel semipolar (20–21) blue micro-LED, a phenothiazine/dimesitylborane-based organic blue emitter (CC-MP3), green-emitting CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs), and a commercially available red-emitting phosphorescent emitter (Ir(fbi)2(acac)) for visible light communication (VLC) and lighting applications. By designing the color conversion layers appropriately, the WLEDs achieved a bandwidth ranging from 952 to 1008 MHz, a CCT ranging from 4000K to 6000K, and a CRI ranging from 61.3 to 82.4. Moreover, PQDs and CC-MP3 were significantly stable in optical and frequency response performance after 180 days of storage.

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14:00 - 14:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0931
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O003
Po-Sheng Huang Pairs of Exceptional Points for Asymmetric Wavefront Manipulation
Po-Sheng Huang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Zijin Yang, Tsinghua University (China); Yu-Tsung Lin, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Patrice Genevet, CNRS (France); Qinghua Song, Tsinghua University (China); Pin Chieh Wu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Exceptional points (EPs) are singularities in non-Hermitian systems where eigenvalues and eigenstates merge. This allows for unique control of asymmetric light, limited by EP chirality. Here we introduces a method to extend this control to any polarization by engineering EP pairs. Our plasmonic metasurface features chiral degenerate eigenstates for circular polarization at EPs, resulting in asymmetric reflection for all circular polarizations. Manipulating chiral EP handedness within the metasurface enables control of arbitrary polarizations, overcoming topological metasurface constraints. Furthermore, we utilize EP pairs and rotation-induced phase to create versatile vectorial holographic images, offering innovative wave control possibilities in photonics applications.

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14:15 - 14:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0263
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O004
Ting-Chun Chang Investigated performance of NO gas sensors using WO3 nanorod sensing membranes
Ting-Chun Chang, Lu-Hao Lien, Hsin-Ying Lee, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Ching-Ting Lee, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan), Yuan Ze University (Taiwan)

In this study, tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods were grown using hydrothermal synthesis method as the sensing membranes of NO gas sensors. The performance of the NO gas sensors using WO3 nanorod sensing membranes could be improved by annealing in the hydrogen (H2) ambience at 400 oC for 15 min. The optimal responsivity of the NO gas sensor was 2305.2% under NO concentration of 1 ppm and operation temperature of 140 oC.

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14:30 - 14:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0342
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O005
Yun-Chien Wu Inverse Design of Freeform Metagratings for Higher Efficiency and Arbitrary Polarization Deflection
Yun-Chien Wu, Huan-Teng Su, Yao-Wei Huang, NYCU (Taiwan)

The forward design process could be cumbersome and limited by the human imagination when it comes to exploring complex shapes to achieve optimal performance. However, inverse design allows us to break free from those limitations and design unconventional and simple patterns. In our work, we leverage the power of inverse design to optimize the geometric layout of metagratings, enabling us to achieve higher efficiency compared to conventional forward-designed gratings. We also optimize non-orthogonal polarization pairs and achieve similar results as forward design methods could achieve with orthogonal polarization states, which expand functionality and could further apply to polarization camera.

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14:45 - 15:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0088
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0101-O006
Yu-Hong Chang Realizing switchable vector vortex beams in PCSELs
Yu-Hong Chang, Chia-Jui Chang, Yu-Wen Chen, Lih-Ren Chen, Tien-Chang Lu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Vector vortex beams (VVBs) have garnered considerable interest owing to their unique polarization properties, opening up new possibilities for innovative applications in optics and communication. There has been a persistent desire to find an effective method for dynamically switching the topological charge of VVBs. In our study, we successfully generate VVBs with topological charge (TC) of +1 and -2 in hexagonal-lattice PCSELs. Moreover, we achieve dynamic modulation of the TC of VVBs by controlling the pulse duration, enabling us to switch between modes with varying TC values.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Poster Session I
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  13:30-16:30
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)
Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0417
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P001
K M Arun Kumar Ultrasensitive SERS Detection of Antibiotic by Silver Nanoprisms Embedded on Cuprous Oxide Microspheres
K M Arun Kumar, E Ashok Kumar, Tzyy-Jiann Wang, Thangavelu Kokulnathan, Yu-Hsu Chang, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

This work emphasizes the utilization of SERS-active Ag nanoprisms with sharp tips and edges on Cu2O microspheres for ultra-sensitive antibiotic detection in real-world samples. The proposed SERS substrate endows superior detection performance, including high sensitivity, high enhancement factor of 2.31×10^11, ultra-low limit of detection of 5.80×10^−13 M, superior uniformity and reproducibility with the RSD < 8.31%.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0542
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P002
Yong-Chen Pan Integration of Surface Plasmon Resonance and Cyclic Voltammetry for the Detection of Levodopa
Yong-Chen Pan, Hao-Fang Peng, Jian-Jang Huang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

This study presents a novel approach for the detection of Levodopa (L-dopa) using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) combined with Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The oxidation reaction of the drug L-dopa is conducted on gold nanoholes by applying EC voltage swing. The nanoholes generate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the oxidation process is monitored by SPR spectrum. The results showed that the limit of detection (LOD) using traditional CV reached 1.47 μM, while using EC-SPR, the LOD improved to 1.23 μM.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0561
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P003
Pin-Jie Pu Ultra-low Threshold Trion Laser in Monolayer WSe2
Pin-Jie Pu, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Chiayi University (Taiwan); Po-Jui Chen, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Zheng-Zhe Chen, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Chiao-Yun Chang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Yu-Wei Zhang, Shih-Yen Lin, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Min-Hsiung Shih, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University (Taiwan)

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit ultra-low-threshold excitonic lasers, and optical gain can be achieved near trion emission with lower carrier injection. Therefore, this study aims to utilize the trion emission of monolayer WSe2 as a gain medium to couple with a micro-disk (MD) resonator. By adjusting the diameter of the MD, the resonant wavelength of the trion laser can be matched. Trion emission demonstrates superior gain characteristics, suggesting that trion lasers might have a lower threshold, making them suitable for applications in monolayer TMDCs lasers.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0748
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P004
Chun-Ling Chien Single-mode characteristics of crystalline-clad Ti:sapphire fibers
Chun-Ling Chien, Ya-Chun Yu, Sheng-Lung Huang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

Active single-mode crystalline fiber can improve the laser performance of its bulk form regarding heat dissipation and pump/signal mode matching. The ultra-broadband emission from Ti:sapphire crystal has advantages compared to semiconductor optical amplifier based tunable lasers for high axial-resolution optical coherence tomography. The study achieved a 99% optical energy transmission through a single-crystalline core and clad Ti:sapphire fiber. The crystalline clad was produced using solid-state growth at 1650 °C for 60 hours. The crystallographic orientation distribution and fluorescence mapping at the fiber end-face were characterized.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0770
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P005
Jia-Wei Chen Precise Transfer Printing of a Photonic Crystal Nanolaser to Silicon Waveguide for Unidirectional Coupling
Jia-Wei Chen, Chien-Cheng Chang, Tsan-Wen Lu, Po-Tsung Lee, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We investigate the hybrid integration of two photonic crystal nanobeam resonator
designs with a Si waveguide, including a nanocavity and a band-edge resonator. Both
integrations demonstrate remarkably high unidirectional coupling efficiencies, exceeding 80%.
In experiments, we have successfully achieved these hybrid integrations using the highly
precise transfer printing method relying on mechanical guidance.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0967
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P006
Cheng-Yao Weng Ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics on fish surfaces by flexible SERS substrates with silver nanoparticles derived from ferroelectric templates with nanotips
Cheng-Yao Weng, Yung-Yu Liang, Nazar Riswana Barveen, Yin-Ting Chen, Tzyy-Jiann Wang, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

We present the ultra-thin flexible Ag-NPs/PMMA SERS substrates for the real-time, in-situ antibiotic detection on the fish surface. The used Ag NPs are photoreduced on the nanotip-equipped ferroelectric template and then transferred to a PMMA film. The nanotips on the template surface can produce strong electrostatic field through the lightning rod effect to enhance the photoreduction rate and increase the transfer efficiency. The superior SERS performance includes high sensitivity, the enhancement factor up to 1010, the limit of detection of 2.38×10^-12 M for standard detection and 2.08×10^-10 M for practical detection on irregular fish surface.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  1040
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P007
Shi-Hui Huang Artificial optical neuromorphic devices realized by all inorganic perovskite quantum dots
Shi-Hui Huang, Yung-Chi Yao, Meng-Cheng Yen, Chia-Jung Lee, Chin Shan Lue, Ya-Ju Lee, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

All inorganic perovskite (CsPbBr3) quantum dots are utilized as artificial synaptic devices for biomimetic visual neural systems, effectively integrating optical sensing and electrical memory functionalities. This enables a direct modulation in external optical stimulations, thereby facilitating real-time conversion and transmission in optoelectronic signals. Furthermore, it is feasible to emulate the characteristics of synaptic plasticity by simply applying electrical signals to activate the resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  1073
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P008
Sheng-Wen Lai Waterproof CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Encapsulated within Metal-Organic Frameworks for Photonic Applications
Sheng-Wen Lai, Yu-Hsun Chou, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

In this study, we present a novel approach to enhance the water resistance of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) by encapsulating them within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The hierarchical structure consists of a gold thin film on top, CsPbBr3 PQDs embedded within MOFs in the middle layer, and a TiO2/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the bottom. Our investigation reveals the presence of strong light-matter coupling and Rabi splitting phenomena within this composite structure. This innovative design offers promising opportunities for developing advanced photonic devices with improved stability and optical properties, opening up new avenues for optoelectronic applications..

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0536
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P009
Yu-An Chen Chen Super Resolution Imaging of Si3N4 Nanowires Based on Photothermal Nonlinearity
Yu-An Chen Chen, Te-Hsin Yen, Kentaro Nishida, Chih‐Wei Chang, Shi-Wei Chu, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

As Si3N4-based photonic integrated circuits emerge as a promising platform, it is important to diagnose their spatial configuration with resolution beyond diffraction limit. Here, we demonstrate a resolution enhancement of hundred-nanometer-diameter Si3N4 nanowires based on photothermal nonlinearity. Our work opens up the avenue for super-resolution imaging of Si3N4 NW by photothermal nonlinearity and SAX subtraction method, which has the potential to exceed the diffraction limit through higher order SAX subtraction.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0663
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P010
Shao-Zhi Wu Phonon-mediated Up-conversion Photoluminescence in Two-Dimensional PEA2PbI4 Perovskite
Shao-Zhi Wu, Sheng-Chan Wu, Chia-Kai Lin, Hsin-Ming Cheng, Department of Photonics (Taiwan); Jia-Kai Hu, Pai-Chun Wei, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Taiwan); Hsu-Cheng Hsu, Department of Photonics (Taiwan)

The efficient single-photon up-conversion photoluminescence (UCPL) feature was found in 2D lead halide perovskites, and it promises for developing laser cooling devices. In this study, we report the discovery of single-photon up-conversion photoluminescence (UCPL) in 2D lead halide perovskites. The observed UCPL phenomenon involves anti-Stokes photoluminescence (ASPL) and is also referred to as phonon-assisted up-conversion or thermal up-conversion, ASPL removes thermal energy from the system, in turn cooling it. This finding opens up new possibilities for harnessing the unique properties in optoelectronics and photonics applications.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0924
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P011
Thanh Thu Le Vu Reducing Photon Avalanche Excitation Threshold of Tm3+-doped NaYF4 Up-Conversion Nanoparticles by Resonant Waveguide Grating Structure
Thanh Thu Le Vu, Jia-Rong Chang, Jiunn-Yuan Lin, Hung-Chih Kan, Chia-Chen Hsu, National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan)

Photon avalanche (PA) upconversion luminescence (UCL) of rare earth ion-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted great interest due to their extreme nonlinear response to the excitation light intensity via a looping energy transfer mechanism. In this work, we demonstrated the generation of PA UCL of Tm3+-doped NaYF4 UCNPs with an excitation intensity threshold of 6 kWcm-2. Furthermore, we showed that the excitation intensity threshold of the PA UCL of these core UCNPs can be reduced by the guided mode resonance effect generated by a resonant waveguide grating structure.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0054
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P012
Yu-Dao Lu Generation of Long-lived Excitons in Room-temperature Phosphorescence 2D Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites for Ultrafast and Low Power-consumption Non-volatile Photomemory
Yu-Dao Lu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Jian-Cheng Chen, National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan); Jung-Yao Chen, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan), National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan)

Room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) two-dimensional (2D) organic inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) that possess efficient triplet energy transfer between inorganic parts and organic cations have been seen as promising materials in optoelectronic devices. However, the development of RTP 2D OIHP-based photomemory has not been explored yet. In this work, the spatially addressable RTP 2D OIHPs based non-volatile flash photomemory is first investigated to explore the function of triplet excitons in elevating the performance of photomemory. Thanks to the triplet excitons generated in RTP 2D OIHP, extremely low photo-programming time of 0.7 ms and multilevel behavior of minimum 7 bits can be achieved.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0436
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P013
Yi-Chieh Huang MoS2/Si Heterojunction Device Stacked by Utilizing a Polymer-Assisted All-Transfer-Printing Method
Yi-Chieh Huang, Bo-Yan Chen, Po-Cheng Kuo, Pin-Ruei Huang, Tsan-Wen Lu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Shih-Yen Lin, Research Center for Applied Sciences (Taiwan); Po-Tsung Lee, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We demonstrate a MoS2/Si heterojunction device stacked by utilizing a polymer-assisted all-transfer-printing method. The monolayer MoS2 film is transferred onto the patterned SiO2/p+-Si substrate assisted with PDMS template pad to form a heterojunction. Then, the patterned Pt/Au electrodes defined by photolithography and deposited on the glass substrate are transferred onto MoS2 assisted with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form a photodiode. Compared to the sample fabricated by the traditional photolithography process, this proposed method can avoid photoresist residue and organic solvent, and the photoresponsivity increases ~30 times.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0623
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P014
Yi-Hsuan Huang Design of High-efficiency and Large-angle Homo-metagratings for 1550-nm PCSEL
Yi-Hsuan Huang, Wei-Cheng Tsai, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Yu-Heng Hong, Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan); Yao-Wei Huang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

The integration of metasurface and light source has received tremendous attention. However, to obtain efficient beam deflection, some previous studies lack efficiency at large deflection angle, thus limiting the coverage of deflection angle. Here we numerically demonstrate high-efficiency Si-based homo-metagrating that unitize Si substrate to reduce impedance mismatching with InP-based 1550-nm photonic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL). We manipulate two degrees of freedom: overall add-on phase and parameters of meta-atoms in a period to optimize the efficiency. We believe the low cost of silicon and the maturity of its fabrication has great advantages for integration within numerous ultracompact optical systems.

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Manuscript ID.  0710
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P015
Johan Iskandar Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes based on a polyethyleneimine ethoxylated-doped SnO2 electron transport layer
Xiang-Ren Deng, Johan Iskandar, Chih-Chien Lee*, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Shun-Wei Liu*, Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

Herein, for the first time, we report efficient N–I–P architecture PeLEDs using solution-processed polyethyleneimine ethoxylated-doped SnO2 (SnO2:PEIE)as an electron transport layer. According to the results, perovskite layer deposited on PEIE-doped SnO2 can achieve better electrical characteristics and crystallinity than pristine SnO2. As a result, PeLEDs based on SnO2:PEIE can achieve a low driving voltage of 1.2 V and an external quantum efficiency of more than 14%.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0881
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P016
I-Hsuan Chuang High-Efficiency Photolithographic Metalenses via Intelligent Reticle Modification
I-Hsuan Chuang, Chun-Yen Chou, Peichen Yu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Addressing fidelity challenges in photolithographic metalenses is essential for advancing dielectric metalenses adoption in optoelectronic applications. This study presents an innovative reticle modification system guided by a predictive neural-network U-net lithographic model. This correction enables precise control of photoresist dimensions, with a remarkable average deviation of only 0.19% from the target. Additionally, we achieve vertical etch profiles with a high 1:5 aspect ratio across an 8-inch wafer. Consequently, we showcase visible metalenses (2mm diameter) achieving diffraction-limited focusing using DUV KrF 248 nm photolithography. This research bridges semiconductor processes and lens manufacturing, enabling high-volume production of versatile metalenses and metasurface applications.

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Manuscript ID.  0421
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P017
Jeng Yi Lee Band structures of generic one-dimensional Parity-time symmetric photonic crystals
Jeng Yi Lee, National Dong Hwa University (Taiwan); Pai-Yen Chen, University of Illinois at Chicago (USA)

We elucidate general scattering relationship between one-dimensional parity-time symmetric unit cells and its resultant photonic crystals. As arbitrary unit cells operated at an exceptional point and broken symmetry phase would always lead to form bands, while ones operated at some symmetry phases with specific transmission phase would construct bandgaps. With an increase of non-Hermiticity, the edges of bands would gradually move toward the center of Brillouin zones.
Any finite periodic systems made of unit cells having exceptional points or broken symmetry would eventually exhibit transmittance of T>1, consistent with an extension of generalized conservation relation proposed by Ref.[1].

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Manuscript ID.  0946
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P018
Zih-Sian Yang Optical Observation of the Weak Van der Waals Coupling between Antimonene and Bi-Layer MoS2
Zih-Sian Yang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Che-Jia Chang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Peng-Jui Wang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Shih-Yen Lin, National Taiwan University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Chi-Kuang Sun, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

The rise of van der Waals (VDW) materials, especially MoS2 and antimonene, has significant implications for semiconductor technology. MoS2 shows promise as a high-performance semiconductor due to its good electric properties. Antimonene, with much reduced contact resistance when grown on top of MoS2 as compared to traditional metal materials, is a notable approach for future electrode. This work reports the observation of low effective elastic constant of VDW interaction between antimonene and MoS2, to be on the order of 2 × 10^18 N/m^3. This work will trigger future studies of VDW interaction on the contact resistance.

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Manuscript ID.  0397
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P019
Hai-Pang Chiang Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence by using gold nanohole arrays with ring-shaped silver nanoparticles
Sy-Hann Chen, National Chiayi University (Taiwan); Wu-Jui Hsieh, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Yi-Wen Hong, National Chiayi University (Taiwan); Hung Ji Huang, National Formosa University (Taiwan); Li-Ming Chiang, Tsung Sheng Kao, National Yang-Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Min-Hsiung Shih, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Hai-Pang Chiang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan)

This study presents a novel approach involving the fabrication of gold (Au) nanohole arrays (ANA) decorated with ring-shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/silver (Ag) substrate. The surface plasmon resonance coupling in terms of the photoluminescence (PL) reactions of ANA substrates with and without ring-shaped AgNPs is investigated via experiments and numerical simulations. Specifically, the Raman signal of rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye and the PL intensity of DCJTB molecules are significantly enhanced 3.7 and 2.2 times, respectively, compared to those of the bare ANA substrate. Meanwhile, the PL lifetime is reduced by 46.15%.

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Manuscript ID.  0475
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P020
Chu-Wei Hsu Photoalignment Liquid Crystal Networks Actuator
Chu-Wei Hsu, Nien-Jung Chiang, Wei-Ting Hsu, Yu-Chieh Cheng, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

In this experiment, we employ the photoalignment material Brilliant Yellow (BY) as the horizontal alignment layer and Polyimide (PI) as the vertical alignment layer in the liquid crystal cell. By exposing BY to polarized ultraviolet light, we can modify the alignment direction of the horizontal layer, consequently altering the arrangement of the liquid crystals. As a result, the liquid crystal molecules on both sides of the Liquid Crystal Networks (LCNs) film exhibit distinct orientations. This alignment can control the bending behavior of the LCN film.

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Manuscript ID.  0627
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P021
Yan-Yu Shiu Ligand Engineering of Red Perovskite Quantum Dots for Lighting Applications
Yen-Hsien Chang, Yan-Yu Shiu, Fang-Chung Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We successfully synthesize red perovskite quantum dots (QDs) with the CIE color coordinate at (0.7034, 0.2852), which is closely resembling the standard red color (0.708, 0.292) that is specified by Rec.2020. These QDs are mixed with polyvinyl cinnamate (PVCN) to formulate photopatternable thin films. Therefore, we can pattern the films with conventional photolithography techniques. The minimum feature sizes that we achieved is as small as 3.30 μm. The combination of red perovskite QDs with PVCN shows great potential for serving as effective color conversion layers for micro-LEDs in the future.

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Manuscript ID.  0395
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P022
Ying-Chang Lu Highly Sensitive Nitrogen Oxide Gas Sensors Utilizing Hole-Transporting Organic Semiconductors
Ying-Chang Lu, Li-Yin Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

In this work, we utilized a novel material called HT-CTP as the sensing material
for a nanoscale vertical pore structure organic semiconductor gas sensor. The experiments
were conducted under controlled conditions with humidity maintained below 15% and an
operating voltage of 5 volts. The results of the experiments revealed that the new material,
when used in the nanoscale vertical pore structure organic semiconductor gas sensor, exhibited
excellent performance in detecting low concentrations of nitrogen oxides with a detection limit
lower than 100 ppb.

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Manuscript ID.  0721
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P023
Bohr-Ran Huang Hybrid nanostructures of ZnGa2O4 and β-Ga2O3 for UV photodetectors Studies
Bohr-Ran Huang, Jia-Ke Huang, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

Here, we report a new strategy to sputter ZnGa2O4 thin films (ZGO) on β-Ga2O3 thin films (GaO) and annealed at different temperatures in air to enhance the quality. In this work, the ZGO/GaO structure performances a low dark current and high sensitivity as a UV photodetector. After annealed at 1000 °C in air for 30 mins, the photocurrent of ZGO/GaO significantly increased from 2.85×10-7 to 2.95×10 -4 due to the quality of materials is greatly improved. In addition, ZGO/GaO annealed at 900 °C performances the best sensitivity which as high as 6.42×10 3 .

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Manuscript ID.  0745
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P024
Po-Chun Chang SERS for detecting DNA dimerization
Po-Chun Chang, Wan-Ping Chan, Shiuan-Yeh Chen, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

This work uses UVC to induce poly-thymine ssDNA dimerization and develops two surface-enhanced Raman scattering methods for validation. One employs self-assembled SERS substrates to measure dry DNA samples, and the other uses gold nanoparticles whose citrate caps have been removed, to sandwich the DNA strands in aqueous solutions. A crucial element in our lab's strong coupling system involves fluorescent molecules embedded in ssDNA. By altering ssDNA conformation with dimerization, it is possible to finely tune the dipole moment orientation of fluorescent molecules, which can enhance its coupling strength to a nanocavity.

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Manuscript ID.  0891
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P025
Pu-Huan Huang Surface modification of ZnO NCs with conjugated polyelectrolytes for fabricating inverted perovskite light-emitting diodes
Fu-Bing Chiu, Pu-Huan Huang, Sheng-Hsiung Yang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Three conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) PFN-Br, PFN-BF4, and PFN-PF6 were utilized solely for surface modification of zinc oxide nanocrystals (ZnO NCs). ZnO films were smoothened by CPEs that allowed flat deposition of the perovskite absorbing layers. The improved contact between ZnO and perovskite layers was beneficial for reducing leakage current, and the incorporation of CPEs passivated the defects of ZnO films to prolong carrier lifetime of upper CsPbBr3 NCs. The device based on PFN-Br showed the highest device performance, while the one based on PFN-BF4 exhibited better current efficiency over PFN-Br under the low current density below 160 mA/cm2.

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Manuscript ID.  0893
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P026
Seok-Lyul Lee Optically isotropic nanometer size encapsulation of nematic liquid crystals with high-filling factor
Seok-Lyul Lee, Chang-Nien Mao, Yi-Hsin Lin, National Yang Ming Chio Tung University (Taiwan)

The low filling factor of LCs in the LC-polymer composite systems greatly affects the electro-optic properties of optically isotropic liquid crystal devices. To overcome this issue, we proposed an encapsulated LC which is fabricated through oil-in-water encapsulation, effectively increasing the filling factor by closely packing the capsules. This led to a thin-composite film of nano-size LC encapsulation that reliably switches from isotropic state to anisotropic state in response to a low-voltage electric field, with fast response time and no hysteresis. The improved electro-optic performance of the encapsulated LC device has broad applications in flexible display and tunable photonic systems.

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Manuscript ID.  1050
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P027
Jia-Wei Lin Wide Angle of Beam Steering by Coherent Phase Control of Dielectric Metasurface
Guan-Hong Li, Jia-Wei Lin, Photonics Technologies (Taiwan); Yu-Chueh Hung, Photonics Technologies (Taiwan), Department of Electrical Engineering (Taiwan)

In this study, we presented the design of active metasurfaces via coherent all-optical control. Two counter-propagating light beams were used to tune the phase gradient of the metasurface, which in term realizes a wide beam steering angle up to 38 degrees. Our scheme provides a versatile strategy toward the realization of high-performance active metasurfaces for beam steering applications.

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Manuscript ID.  1057
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P028
Tsai-Yu Hsieh Research on TiO2 Metasurface-based On-chip Spectrometer
Hsuan-Hao Chang, Tsai-Yu Hsieh, Tzu-Yu Lin, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Chao-Te Lee, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Chun-Hung Lin, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Spectral analysis has found extensive use across various applications. Nevertheless, conventional benchtop spectrometers are both bulky and costly. As a result, the miniaturization of spectrometers has emerged as a trend. This work employed UV nanoimprint lithography to pattern a metasurface on a high refractive index TiO2 dielectric material. The optimization of the UV nanoimprint lithography and ICP etching process were key aspects of the fabrication. The spectral responses of the fabricated metasurface units were measured. The metasurface is intended to undergo testing as an on-chip spectrometer, offering a more compact and cost-effective solution.

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Manuscript ID.  1065
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P029
Yung-Chi Yao Wafer-scale, all-inorganic perovskite quantum dot hybrid 1T'-MoTe2 mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructure phototransistor with high output photocurrent
Yung-Chi Yao, Gowtham Rangeesh, Ping-Feng Chi, Yung-Lan Chuang, Wei-Chen Tu, Jinn-Kong Sheu, Ya-Ju Lee, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

We present a novel structure, CsPbBr3 QDs/1T’-MoTe2 MvdWHs, achieved through wafer-scale integration, which exhibits exceptional photogating properties. Under illumination, this structure enhances output photocurrent by 4100% at gate voltage = -7V. Incident photons are absorbed within the QDs, generating photogenerated carriers and creating a photogating effect in the 1T’-MoTe2 layer. The work function mismatch induces an internal electric field at the interface, rapidly bending energy bands, facilitating photogenerated hole transfer to 1T’-MoTe2 under negative back gate voltage, resulting in an overall increase in device photocurrent.

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Manuscript ID.  0980
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P030
Wei-En Wang Analysis of Photonic Bandgap in Three-dimensional Disordered Tetrahedral Networks
Wei-En Wang, Yuan-Chih Tsai, Yu-Chueh Hung, Photonics Technologies (Taiwan)

We presented the analysis of photonic band gap in disordered tetrahedral networks. We showed that the band edges of the gap can be explicitly manipulated by introducing specific types of structural perturbation. The analysis may further provide design and manipulation strategies of engineered photonic band gap based on disordered media.

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Manuscript ID.  0276
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P031
Taina Ramírez Fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube saturable absorber for fiber laser passive mode locking
Taina Ramírez, Jaime Cascante, Mavis Montero, Esteban Avendaño, University of Costa Rica (Costa Rica)

Ultrafast lasers with short pulse duration have shown a variety of applications. Carbon nanotubes have shown promising results as saturable absorbers in ultrafast devices, and in the last decade the methods of fabrication and implementation have been vastly improved. In this research we report the fabrication and characterization of a passive modulator using single walled carbon nanotubes in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a host polymer. With these results we can confirm if the fabricated modulator can be used as a passive mode locker as a low-cost alternative for a fiber laser at University of Costa Rica.

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Manuscript ID.  0530
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P032
ZI-YAN LIN Influence of Black Phosphorous Quantum Dots Prepared with Different Ultrasonic Vibration Time on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
ZI-YAN LIN, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

In this study, black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) are prepared by the liquid phase exfoliation method, and then introduced to the TiO2 photoanode of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influence of BPQDs prepared with different ultrasonic vibration times on the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of DSSC is investigated. It is found that the efficiency increases with the vibration time. Moreover, the maximum efficiency is obtained with the vibration time of 15 hours. Compared with the pure TiO2 photoanode, the efficiency of DSSC increases from 4.77% to 5.68% when BPQDs is introduced to the photoanode.

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Manuscript ID.  0264
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P033
Cheng-Syun Wu Numerical Analysis and Optimization of InGaN multiple quantum well solar cells
Cheng-Syun Wu, Jih-Yuan Chang, Man-Fang Huang, National Changhua University of Education (Taiwan)

The pair number of quantum well (QW) and composition of InGaN for InGaN-based multiple QW (MQW) solar cells are investigated and optimized numerically using APSYS. Analysis shows that excessive increase in QW pair number causes worse FF, and excessive increase in indium composition results in the increase of piezoelectric field in QWs, which hinders light-generated carriers from transport. Both result in a decrease in conversion efficiency. This study shows that In0.21GaN MQWs with 18 pairs exhibits the optimal conversion efficiency. A final 31.7% improvement is achieved in this study.

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Manuscript ID.  0224
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0101-P034
Hung Ji Huang Effects of external light in the magnetic field-modulated photocatalytic reactions in a microfluidic chip reactor
Hung Ji Huang, National Formosa University (Taiwan); Yen-Han Wang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Sy-Hann Chen, National Chiayi University (Taiwan); Hai-Pang Chiang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Yuan-Fong Chou Chau, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei); Jeffrey Chi-Sheng Wu, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

An external magnetic field enhances the typical photocatalysis mediated by the Au-TiO2 composite nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in water. The applied magnetic field further strengthens the plasmonic enhancements induced by additional visible light illumination of various colors of blue, green, and red, while all processed with UV light.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices II
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  15:15-17:30
Presider: Prof. Po-Tsung Lee (National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan) Dr. Yun-Chorng Chang (Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
15:15 - 15:45
Manuscript ID.  0633
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-I001
Invited Speaker:
Kenneth Järrendahl
Optical Studies of Beetle Cuticle as Biomimetical Inspiration for Novel Synthetic Materials
Kenneth Järrendahl, Linköping University (LiU) (Sweden)

Over the past decade, our research has been dedicated to in-depth investigations of scarab beetle cuticle properties through Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. This explorationhas not only unveiled the intricate optical characteristics of these natural materials but has also sparked the development of novel synthetic materials. In this presentation, we will showcase the potential of this research through the utilization of cellulose nano-fibrils for camouflage applications, as well as cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and AlN-based thin films to generate circularly polarized light. We will
discuss our latest findings, demonstrating the capabilities of CNCs as optical diodes for circularly
polarized light and non-reciprocal reflection properties of magnetron sputtered HfAlN thin films.

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15:45 - 16:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0114
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O001
Chang-Yi Lin Asymmetric Vortex Beam Generation from Dielectric Janus Metasurfaces
Chang-Yi Lin, Jhih-Hao Huang, Lu-Yun Wang, Po-Cheng Yang, Yao-Wei Huang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Janus metasurfaces provide degree of freedom by imparting the light with the different incident direction. Directional Janus metasurfaces operating at microwave and near infrared region have been demonstrated several years ago. However, the multilayer design of the Janus metasurface is an addition of difficulty for fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate monolayer Janus metasurfaces in the visible with TiO2 nanopillars. By taking advantage of the propagation and geometric phase control, different desired states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for two opposite directions are achieved. We believe the direction-dependent metasurface has the potential in holograms, laser mode modulation and optical combiner.

  Preview abstract
16:00 - 16:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0128
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O002
Wen-Cheng Hsu Depth sensing and facial recognition with metasurface and PCSEL integration
Wen-Cheng Hsu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan); Chia-Hsun Chang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Yu-Heng Hong, Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan); Hao-Chung Kuo, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan); Yao-Wei Haung, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We present a novel depth sensing system for facial recognition applying metasurfaces and photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs). Our lens-free, single-shot system projects 45,700 infrared dots from a compact 297² μm² sample area, offering a wide 158° field-of-view (FOV) with low power consumption. Compared to traditional dot projectors, our design is 233 times smaller and consumes 5-10 times less power due to PCSELs. The GaAs-based meta-hologram and simple optical architecture make it lighter and more energy-efficient, suitable for wearable devices. This technology overcomes limitations of bulky dot projectors, paving the way for integration into compact wearable devices.

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16:15 - 16:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0362
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O003
Ming-Hung Hou Artificial Intelligence for Material and Geometric Prediction in Meta-Optics
Ming-Hung Hou, Chih-Ming Wang, National Central University (Taiwan)

This research aims to address the challenge of the lack of geometric and material data
in the study of photonic metasurfaces. We employed a conditional deep convolutional
generative adversarial network to train the model, and through continuous parameter
optimization, we achieved the capability to predict geometric structures and material
information solely based on spectral data. Subsequently, we used the rigorous coupled-wave
analysis simulation method to observe the consistency between the simulated spectra and the
target spectra.

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16:30 - 16:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0364
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O004
Zong-Yu Chen Nanoimprint Lithography for PB Phase Metalens
Zong-Yu Chen, Chih-Ming Wang, National Central University (Taiwan)

Metalenses ,which are thinner than conventional lenses ,usually fabricated using electron beam lithography. However, this method is costly and not suitable for rapid mass production. Therefore, nanoimprint lithography has become an ideal solution to this problem. In this work, we are going to fabricate a metalens with a size of 330µm*330µm by nanoimprinting. First, we transfer the pattern of the metalens onto the polymer Topas8007 as a stamp for the nanoimprint. The pattern on the Topas8007 stamp is a reversed structure. Subsequently, the pattern is transferred onto the photoresist material using the Topas8007 stamp.

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16:45 - 17:00
Manuscript ID.  0200
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O005
Chien-Nan Kao Experimental demonstration of 2D free-space Gaussian beam emitters on silicon photonic platform
Jun-Ying Lin, Chien-Nan Kao, Yi Zhao, Ping-Yen Hsieh, You-Chia Chang, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We design and fabricate an emitter on the silicon photonic platform to generate a 2D Gaussian beam into free space. We first engineer the coupling from a strip waveguide to a slab waveguide for mode expansion in the first dimension. The light in the slab waveguide then gradually out-couples to free space via a meta-grating and achieves mode expansion in the second dimension. We experimentally demonstrate a mode conversion from a 450 nm × 220 nm waveguide to a 2D free-space Gaussian beam with a 1/e2 beam diameter of 58.4 µm.

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17:00 - 17:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0274
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O006
Ya-Ting Tsai High Circular Polarization Degree from Photonic Crystal Defect Cavity Lasers
Ya-Ting Tsai, Chao-Chieh Cheng, Tzu-Wei Huang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Wei-Ting Wang, Pi-Ju Cheng, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Shu-Wei Chang, Min-Hsiung Shih, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan)

We demonstrated a D1 defect photonic crystal defect laser with structural variations, and compared the lasing properties with the unperturbed D1 photonic crystal defect cavity. The high circular polarization lasing action was observed from the photonic crystal defect cavity.

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17:15 - 17:30
Manuscript ID.  0167
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0102-O007
Ping-Yen Hsieh Chip-scale confocal laser-scanning microscope based on optical phased array
Ju-Wei Wang, Hsin-Hung Lin, Sheng-I Kuo, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Zohauddin Ahmad, National Central University (Taiwan); Ping-Yen Hsieh, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Jin-Wei Shi, National Central University (Taiwan); You-Chia Chang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We demonstrate a chip-scale confocal microscope based on a 30-element active optical phased array (OPA). We calibrate the fabrication-induced phase errors with a novel algorithm, showing 10 times faster convergence than the genetic algorithm. We perform confocal depth sensing by dynamic scanning of the focal length. Using the OPA-based microscope, we reconstruct a 3D topology image that resolves a height difference of 8.05µm.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices III
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  10:45-12:00
Presider: Prof. Ya-Ju Lee (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan) Prof. Hui-Hsin Hsiao (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
10:45 - 11:15
Manuscript ID.  1084
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0103-I001
Invited Speaker:
Hui-Hsin Hsiao
All-dielectric metasurfaces based on toroidal and quasi-bound state in the continuum resonances in sensing and nonlinear applications
Hui-Hsin Hsiao, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

We experimentally demonstrated an unprecedented simple way to excite strong and broadband toroidal dipole (TD) response in the optical regime using dielectric metasurfaces upon plane-wave excitation. The peculiar electromagnetic portrait of TD metamaterials leads to an ultrahigh sensitivity for local refractive-index sensing. In addition, the effect of the coupling between TD and magnetic dipole (MD) moments on the nonlinear third-harmonic generation (THG) was investigated. A strong THG enhancement was found at the generalized Kerker effect, referring to the constructive interference between the total electric dipole (the sum of electric dipole and TD moments) and the MD mode. In order to further narrow down the resonant linewidth, several asymmetric structures such as tilted nanorod pairs and asymmetry kite-shaped nanopillars were designed to excite high quality factor resonances based on the concept of quasi-bound state in the continuum (quasi-BIC) and applied to sensing and nonlinear signal conversion.

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11:15 - 11:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0307
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0103-O001
Ai-Yin Liu Third Harmonic Generation Enhanced by Quasi-Bound States in the Continuum in All-Dielectric Metasurfaces
Ai-Yin Liu, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Jou-Chun Hsieh, National Taiwan Normal University (Taiwan); Hui-Hsin Hsiao, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

The quasi-Bound States in the Continuum (quasi-BIC) is a resonance characterized by ultrahigh quality factor (Q-factor) with strong near-field distributions. We designed periodic amorphous silicon kite-shaped nanopillar arrays to achieve Fano-lineshaped quasi-BIC resonance supported by magnetic dipole (MD) and electric quadruple (EQ). Varying the asymmetry parameters of the kite-shaped structure leads to dramatic Q-factor variations and strong field confinement, which is beneficial for boosting nonlinear effects for third-harmonic generation (THG). The simulated (experimental) TH signal reaches more than four orders (one order) of magnitude enhancement at the quasi-BIC resonant frequency. This approach offers a platform for realizing tunable nonlinear metasurfaces.

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11:30 - 11:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0549
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0103-O002
Chia-Kai Lin Unveiling Carrier Recombination Dynamics of Near-band Edge States in 2D PEA2PbBr4 Perovskite
Chia-Kai Lin, Sheng-Chan Wu, Cheng Liu, Hsin-Min Cheng, Hsu-Cheng Hsu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Two-dimensional perovskites have become the trending materials for various photoelectric applications because of their excellent optoelectronic performance. However, the formation of self-trapped exciton attributed to the strong exciton-phonon (E-P) interaction in 2D perovskites, affects the optoelectronic performance significantly. Here, various optical spectroscopy analyses study the influence of E-P interaction on carrier dynamics for phenethylammonium lead bromide (PEA2PbBr4). Results suggest the strength of E-P interaction is relative to the residual strain of thin films. Moreover, the numerical fitting result of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) shows the reduction in E-P interactions further enhances the recombination process of free excitons.

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11:45 - 12:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0866
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0103-O003
Jia-Zheng Lin Optically-Pumped GeSn Micro-Disk Lasers for Mid-infrared Silicon Photonics
Jia-Zheng Lin, Wei-Cheng Hsu, Guo-En Chang, National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan)

We demonstrated GeSn micro-disk monolithically-integrated on silicon substrate. The introduction of sufficient Sn (~10%) into the GeSn active layer successfully transfer the material into a direct-bandgap material. High-Q micro-disk cavity was fabricated. Under optical pumping, lasing action was achieved with a lasing wavelength of 2201 nm up to 120 K. These developed GeSn micro-disk lasers provide a practical solution for compact light sources for silicon photonics.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices IV
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  13:00-15:00
Presider: Prof. Kuo-Ping Chen (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan) Prof. Yu-Jung (Yuri) Lu (Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
13:00 - 13:30
Manuscript ID.  0915
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-I001
Invited Speaker:
Myung-Ki Kim
Exploring Shortwave Infrared Surface Plasmons in 2D Ti3C2Tx MXenes
Changhoon Park, Nu-Ri Park, Jisung Kwon, Korea University (Korea); Hyerim Kim, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea); Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University (USA); Chong Min Koo, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea); Myung-Ki Kim, Korea University (Korea)

This study presents finding on the exceptional plasmonic characteristics of 2D Ti3C2Tx MXenes in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) range. We report the discovery of a strong plasmonic effect through acoustic plasmon modes, resulting in a significant reduction of the operating wavelength in the SWIR region that exceeds the performance of conventional 2D materials. Utilizing this breakthrough, we achieved an unprecedented nonlinear absorption coefficient of 1.37 × 10^(-2) m/W at a 1.56 μm wavelength. These unique optical properties are attributed to MXene's high electron density and distinctive two-dimensional structure.

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13:30 - 13:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0970
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O001
Shu-Ming Chang Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light in the near-infrared region
Shu-Ming Chang, Chang-Yi Lin, Chia-Hsun Chang, Yao-Wei Huang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Metasurfaces, comprised of subwavelength structures which provide the capability
for arbitrary phase manipulation of electromagnetic waves, have been developed for decades to
replace conventional and bulky optical components. Recent development of “J-plates” achieve
distinct orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for two arbitrary orthogonally polarized
incident beams. However, the operating wavelength of most J-plates are in the visible. Here, we
experimentally demonstrate a J-plate operating at 940 nm that generates the high-quality vortex
beams with different OAM states. This device has the potential applications in various optical
fields, including near-infrared optical communication and stimulated emission depletion (STED)
microscopic imaging.

  Preview abstract
13:45 - 14:00
Manuscript ID.  0120
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O002
Gow-Zin Yiu Unidirectional Gratings on Silicon Photonic Platform
Fa-Lun Chen, Gow-Zin Yiu, You-Chia Chang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We design and fabricate grating emitters with unidirectionality and high angular dispersion. We break the symmetry between top and bottom emitting directions by choosing SU-8 as the top cladding. The refractive index contrast between the top cladding (SU-8) and the bottom cladding (SiO2) allows the phase-matching condition to be satisfied only for upward diffraction. The design is verified with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We measure unidirectionality of 83% and angular dispersion of 0.809°/nm from the fabricated device.

  Preview abstract
14:00 - 14:15
Manuscript ID.  0305
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O003
Seyed Mostafa Latifi High Refractive Index 3D Printing Composite UV-Resin for Compact Terahertz Passive Devices
Seyed Mostafa Latifi, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan), University of Liverpool (UK); Po-Jen Yu, Shang-Hua Yang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

This research introduces a novel approach for mass production of high refractive index TiO_2 composite UV-resin for terahertz (THz) regime tailored for Masked Stereolithography (MSLA) 3D printing enabling versatile design of compact THz passive devices. Its careful formulation process balances a heightened refractive index (n=1.9) in THz regime while retaining low absorption coefficient, yielding impressive performance and compactness in a THz plano-convex lenses and other THz passive devices. This advancement holds vast potential for diverse, cost-effective applications in compact THz telecommunication and imaging systems, presenting an exciting leap forward in 3D printing technology.

  Preview abstract
14:15 - 14:30
Manuscript ID.  0691
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O004
Ching-Deng Lin Effects of Cs ions in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Quantum Dots for X-Ray Imaging Applications
Wen-Chi Lin, Ching-Deng Lin, Fang-Chung Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

By substituting the heavy Cs element at the A sites of perovskite quantum dots (QDs), highly luminescent FA1-xCsxPbBr3 QDs is synthesized using a room temperature ligand-assisted re-precipitation method. The QD powder is blended with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and employed as a scintillator, resulting in increased photoluminescence (PL) under X-ray illumination (radioluminescence). Utilizing PDMS for the fabrication of QD films provides effective protection from moisture and oxygen. High-quality X-ray images are obtained using these scintillators prepared with perovskite QDs.

  Preview abstract
14:30 - 14:45
Manuscript ID.  0450
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O005
Kryzchel Anne Malicsi Dela Cruz Performance Enhancement of High-power DFB Lasers with Multiple Partially Corrugated Gratings
Kryzchel Anne Malicsi Dela Cruz, Siti Sulikhah, San-Liang Lee, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Charng-Gan Tu, Ing-Fa Jang, Hung-Pin Shiao, WIN Semiconductors (Taiwan)

High-power multiple cascaded lasers based partially-corrugated-grating (PCG) DFB structures are advanced to overcome the challenging issues of on-board light sources for co-packaged optics (CPO) applications. With the systematic design of multi-section PCG-DFBs, the device could preserve a single-wavelength operation, high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR), and low relative intensity noise (RIN). This provides the high-reliability and high-efficiency in implementing cascaded DFB lasers to improve the performance and enhance the output power. By designing a grating ratio of 0.4 and five segmentations, the laser can provide >13.8% improvement in output power, >231 mW output, <-151.75 dB/Hz RIN, and >0.4395 mW/mA slope efficiency.

  Preview abstract
14:45 - 15:00
Manuscript ID.  0490
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0104-O006
Jin-Yen Lin Highly Angular Tolerant Photonic Crystal Guided Resonances in Mid-Infrared
Jin-Yen Lin, Wei-Chang Huang, Chi Ting Weng, Tsung-Bo Chen, Bo Xiang Cao, Yu-Hua Lin, Han-Siang Jhuang, Jui-Nung Liu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

There is a common belief that the inherent dispersive phase-matching nature and the imperfect collimation of the typically used thermal sources restrain the performance of the photonic crystal guided resonance (PCGR) in mid-infrared, the spectral domain of fundamental importance to vibrational molecular spectroscopy [Wu et al., Nat Commun 2014, 5, 3892]. Here, we question this belief and numerically demonstrate a high angular tolerance of the dielectric PCGR in mid-infrared by judiciously engineering its dispersion.

  Preview abstract

S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Poster Session II
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  13:30-16:30
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)

Manuscript ID.  1075
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P001
Meng-Cheng Yen Solution process singla quantum well perovskites quantum dots light emitting diode
Meng-Cheng Yen, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Ya-Ju Lee, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Gong-Ru Lin, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

In this work, various morphologies of CsPbBr3 quantum dots were prepared using the hot-injection method. The successful realization of single-layer quantum dot light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was achieved. Furthermore, different morphologies of quantum dots were stacked in heterojunctions, and effectively and easily enhancing carrier injection.

  Preview abstract

Manuscript ID.  0862
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P002
Yi-Hung Lee Multiphoton Modification Mechanism and Simulation for Glass Substrate
Yi-Hung Lee, Dong-Yi Wang, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

The study examines thermal modification and the z-scan technique for measuring optical nonlinearity. Thermal modification involves heat-induced property changes, widely used in fields like materials science. z-scan analyzes light intensity on a focal plane to study material behavior. Glass's nonlinear absorption was measured using z-scan, yielding absorption coefficient β. This β aided simulating glass modification by temperature estimation. Results showed nonlinear absorption governing material heating. Simulations confirmed laser pulse's effectiveness in modifying glass across its thickness.

  Preview abstract

Manuscript ID.  1008
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P003
Yi-Lin Lin All-dielectric topological metasurface
Yi-Lin Lin, Pin-Chieh Wu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Utilizing the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase as means of phase modulation in metasurfaces is an effective strategy. However, signals subjected to PB phase modulation commonly manifest symmetric characteristics within circular polarization (CP), which can diminish the signal-to-noise ratio for specific CP states. In this study, an all-dielectric chiral metasurface is harnessed in conjunction with principles of topological photonics to disrupt the CP symmetry in metasurfaces, thereby enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in far-field.

  Preview abstract

Manuscript ID.  0168
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P004
Cheng-En Yang Increased The Mode Overlap of Monolayer WSe2 Laser with A Hybrid Metal-ring-Microdisk Cavity
Cheng-En Yang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Pi-Ju Cheng, Chung Yuan Christian University (Taiwan); Hong Chou, Chiao-Yun Chang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan)

Recently, there has been a significant surge in research on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductor lasers. Our approach involves a specialized method wherein we integrate a metal ring atop WSe2 and pair it with a silicon nitride microdisk resonator. This unique combination gives rise to a hybrid mode that merges the whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) with the surface plasmon mode. As a result, it leads to an enhanced overlap with the monolayer WSe2 and ensures a favorable quality factor. It is expected that this work will contribute to significant breakthroughs in optical communication and quantum technology fields.

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Manuscript ID.  0311
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P005
Fu-Chiao Wu Ferroelectric Ion-Gel-Gated Polymeric Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Synaptic Transistors
Fu-Chiao Wu, Yung-Ping Hsiao, Wei-Yang Chou, Horng-Long Cheng, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

An ion-gel film consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was used as a dielectric layer to fabricate poly-[2,5-bis(3-tetradecyl-thiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (PBTTT)-based TFTs. The ferroelectricity of the ion-gel film is enhanced by the addition of [EMIM][TFSI] into PVDF. The devices can operate at ultralow voltage as a result of the formation of electric double layer. With the ion migration and ferroelectric properties of the ion-gel film, the devices are able to perform a variety of synaptic behavior.

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Manuscript ID.  0571
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P006
Tung-Jung Wang Low Contact Resistance of WS2 through Semimetal Contact Materials
Tung-Jung Wang, Institute of Lighting and Energy Photonics (Taiwan); Min-Wen Yu, College of Photonics (Taiwan); Jhuang-Hao Cyue, Institute of Photonic System (Taiwan); Kuo-Ping Chen, Institute of Photonics Technologies (Taiwan)

1-T phase Vanadium Disulfides (VS2) has metallic property[1], compare to its semiconductive 2-H phase. We synthesized VS2 with VLS method and salt-assisted precursors through APCVD[2]. Then we confirmed our VS2 belongs to 1-T phase semimetal material through TEM and temperature-dependent I-V measurement. We transferred VS2 on WS2 to build VS2/WS2 heterostructure. We identified VS2 and WS2 in heterostructure with Raman measurement and OM image. From now on, we experimented semimetal bismuth perform as contact material. Compare to chromium, bismuth contact shows ohmic contact and lower contact resistance. In future, VS2/WS2 heterostructure would experiment to compare with bismuth contacts.

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Manuscript ID.  0019
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P007
Chi-Yang Yen Fluorescence Properties of Fluorescein-Labeled Cellulose: Anomalously Reduced Radiative Decay
Chi-Yang Yen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Shailesh Rana, Kamlesh Awasthi, Nobuhiro Ohta, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Masahito Oh-e, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

A comprehensive understanding of fluorescence properties in cellulose films is required to advance cellulosic fluorescence films. We acquired the fluorescence properties including the quantum yields, lifetimes, and rates of the radiative kr and nonradiative knr decay of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labeled cellulose (FLC) in methanol, ethanol, and aqueous solutions as well as FLC films. The fluorescence quantum yields of FLC are found to be very low compared to those of other samples, which may be more significantly caused by anomalously reduced kr of FLC than increased knr.

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Manuscript ID.  0805
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P008
Kai-Jiun Chen Ethanol-assisted photoreduction of silver nanostructure using lithium niobate ferroelectric template for ultra-sensitive SERS detection
Kai-Jiun Chen, Yi-Chung Lai, Ying-Yu Wang, Yun-Yun Tsai, Cheng-Li Chang, Tzyy-Jiann Wang, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

We present ethanol-assisted photoreduction synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the UVC illuminated ferroelectric templates for the SERS application. The ethanol-assisted photoreduction not only increases the density of silver seeds but also enhance the growth rate of Ag NPs. A large amount of Ag NPs produce high-density hotspots, which can effectively enhance the Raman signal intensity of analytes by electromagnetic mechanism. Compared with the sample prepared without ethanol assistance, the Raman signal intensity can be enhanced by 4.87 times. The prepared SERS substrate has an ultra-low limit of detection 1.47×10^-9 M and a high enhancement factor of 2.34×10^9.

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Manuscript ID.  0161
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P009
Po-Hsien Chiang Enhancing Mid-Infrared Hot-Carrier Photodetection in Silicon-based Photodetector via Diffusion Distance Modulation
Po-Hsien Chiang, Du-Ting Cheng, Ching-Fuh Lin, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

This research discusses Schottky mid-infrared (MIR) photodetector (PD), where the probability of hot carrier crossing Schottky barrier is enhanced by adjusting hot carrier diffusion distance. A mathematical model is employed to validate experimental results of hot carrier diffusing to and leaping over the barrier, thereby improving the responsivity of the device. As a result, for Ag thin film thickness of 20 nm, the response at 3.46 μm wavelength is 6.46 times higher than the device with 10 nm thickness.

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Manuscript ID.  0286
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P010
Zhe-Yu Lee Perovskite solar cells based on Al-doped ZnO nanorods as the electron transport layer
Zhe-Yu Lee, Fang-I Lai, Yuan-Ze University (Taiwan); Jui-Fu Yang, Chang Gung University (Taiwan); Shou-Yi Kuo, Chang Gung University (Taiwan), Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan); Wun-Kuan Chung, Yuan-Ze University (Taiwan)

In this study, nonahydrated aluminum nitrate was used as the source of aluminum.
The aluminum was mixed with zinc oxide and then grown using a hydrothermal method to form
zinc oxide nanorods as the electron transport layer. The performance of the perovskite solar
cells based on non-doped and 1% Aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanorods was compared, and it
was found that the device with aluminum doping exhibited the higher efficiency.

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Manuscript ID.  0105
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P011
Chung-Yu Su Near-infrared plasmon thin film transistor of as-deposited Au nanostructures
Chung-Yu Su, Wen-Hao Lin, Cheng-Feng Zheng, Tsong-Sheng Lay, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

A plasmon thin film transistor of Al2O3/ZnO/HfO2 channel is deposited on ITO substrate by atomic layer deposition. Au nanostructures are formed on the channel surface by as-deposited 3nm gold thin film. The as-deposited Au nanostructures in air (n =1) absorb incident light of = 680nm, and the photo-generated hot carriers are amplified by the TFT to reach a high responsivity of R = 2.1 A/W. When the Au nanostructures coated by refractive index oil n = 1.64, the responsivity peak R = 1.2 A/W is red-shifted to near-infrared  = 730nm.

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Manuscript ID.  0079
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P012
Chia-Shuan Lee Optical Modulation of Dual-Electrochromic Porous Film PEDOT/WO3/ZnO for Energy-Saving Windows
Su-Hua Yang, Zhi-Young Chen, Chih-Chieh Ho, Tso-Yu Chang, Po-Ting Lin, Chia-Shuan Lee, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

The PEDOT/WO3/ZnO porous film were prepared with electrochemical polymerization, sputtering, and hydrothermal method for energy-saving window applications. The electrochromic analysis showed that the composite film exhibited a contrast ratio of 42.8% at wavelength 650 nm, with high ion diffusion coefficient and rapid response during coloring (2.8 s) and bleaching (1.3 s). After 50 redox cycles, the current density of the composite film decreased by 18.8%. However, a stable response was observed when the number of cycles was further increased. The coloration efficiency of the PEDOT/WO3/ZnO was 54.48 cm2/C, which was better than the film prepared with a WO3/PEDOT/ZnO structure.

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Manuscript ID.  0135
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P013
Pei-Zhi Huang Crystallinity of Contact Electrodes, Growth Mechanisms of Molybdenum Disulfides and The Influence of Dielectric Layers to 2D Material Transistors
Pei-Zhi Huang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Che-Jia Chang, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Wei-Chen Tu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Shih_Yen Lin, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

Besides the crystallinity of the grown MoS2, high contact resistance at electrode/ MoS2 interface and the inferior influence from the dielectric layer are also possible mechanisms responsible for the inferior performances of MoS2 transistors. Through the improvement of the crystallinity of the au electrodes, sequential film transferring instead of direct bi-layer MoS2 growth and the isolation of the MoS2 channel from the SiO2 dielectric layer, the MoS2 transistor with enhanced field-effect mobility values from 0.27 to 1.33 cm2V-1∙s-1 is observed. High ON/OFF ratio 100000 is also observed. The possibility of scalability is advantageous for the practical applications of 2D materials.

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Manuscript ID.  0153
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P014
Guan-Yi Li Analysis of the Rocky Surface Ge for Vertical Illuminated IR Photodetectors
Guan-Yi Li, Guan-Yu Chen, Ssu-Tung Chen, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan); Ching-Yu Hsu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Zingway Pei, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

In this work, we analyze the Si-based germanium IR photodetector that we have fabricated. Due to the difference in lattice constants between germanium and silicon, there is great difficulty in high-quality germanium epitaxial. Therefore, we fabricated a thin-film PIN photodiode with a rocky top silicon layer. We analyzed the device and thin-film deposition with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quality of the deposited material was analyzed by Raman analysis, and the optical properties were measured and analyzed.

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Manuscript ID.  0084
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P015
Tzu-Yi Lee High Reliability Perovskite Quantum Dots Using Atomic Layer Deposition Passivation for Novel Photonic Applications
Tzu-Yi Lee, Pei-Tien Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Chia-Hung Tsai, SmartKem Ltd. (UK); Fang-Chung Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Hao-Chung Kuo, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan)

This study introduces a novel method of passivating perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) using Al2O3 and atomic layer deposition (ALD). This technique shields PQDs from moisture, oxidation, and temperature changes, maintaining their stability and reliability. It exhibits robust performance in various tests including long-term lighting aging and temperature/humidity conditions (60°/90%). By integrating with micro-LED and red phosphor, we fabricated a white light system with a data transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s. This approach opens promising avenues for full-color micro-displays and high-speed visible light communication (VLC) applications, offering a significant advancement in PeQDs passivation.

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Manuscript ID.  0483
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P016
He-Yuan Zheng High-Q Silicon Nitride Microring Resonators by Nanoimprint Lithography
He-Yuan Zheng, Yuan-Hsiu Liu, Chih-Ming Wang, Pei-Hsun Wang, ncu (Taiwan)

In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of microring resonators using nanoimprint technology. Silicon nitride (SiN) resonators with high quality (Q) factors up to the order of 105 can be realized by nanoimprinting lithography (NIL). In addition, by properly
designing the waveguide geometry, nearly-zero waveguide dispersion can be achieved. This work offers the promising potential to fabricate microring resonators in a significantly costeffective and process-friendly scheme.

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Manuscript ID.  0575
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P017
Hong-Hsueh Chen Artificial Synaptic Behavior of Inorganic Cesium Bismuth Halide Perovskite Thin Films
Hong-Hsueh Chen, Pei-Huan Bai, Chen-Fu Lin Lin, Peter Chen, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

In recent years, with the rise of artificial neural networks, researchers have developed devices using halide perovskites for artificial synapses. Lead halide perovskites have shown successful applications, but their toxicity limits future development. To address this, we used eco-friendly Cs3Bi2I9-xBrx as the active layer, achieving superior performance in Cs3Bi2I6Br3 (x = 3) with improved crystallinity, reduced dark current, and optimal synaptic behavior. It shows promise for efficient artificial synaptic applications.

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Manuscript ID.  0667
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P018
Surabhi Yadav Optical Response Properties in a Hybrid Optomechanical System Assisted by an Auxiliary Cavity and Quantum Dot Molecules
Surabhi Yadav, Aranya Bhuti Bhattacherjee, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-Hyderabad Campus (India)

In the present work, we theoretically study the optical multistability in a hybrid system consisting of an optomechanical cavity with quantum dot molecules inside it coupled to an auxiliary cavity via a single-mode waveguide. We obtain the expression for the primary cavity photon number by solving the Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion in the steady state limit, which indicates the presence of optical multistability phenomena in the proposed system. We show that various system parameters can control and modulate the optical multistability curves, which can be utilized for designing and optimizing sensitive all-optical switching devices at low power and optical sensors.

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Manuscript ID.  0826
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P019
Yi-Ting Ou Fabrication of Period-Chirped Silicon Blazed Gratings by Laser Interference Lithography and Wet Chemical Etching for Optical Spectroscopy
Yi-Ting Ou, Wei-Xiang Hong, Yung-Jr Hung, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan)

We experimentally demonstrate the first period-chirped silicon blazed gratings by laser interference lithography and wet chemical etching. The resultant gratings have a period change over 110 nm that enables more than 200 nm of wavelength coverage when it serves as the dispersive element to resolve the incident light spectrum.

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Manuscript ID.  0895
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P020
Yung-Jyun Liao Impact of V/III Ratio for the InAs Layer in the SWIR Type-II Superlattices Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Yung-Jyun Liao, Hou-Yi Chen, Balaji Gururajan, Pin-Chih Liu, Wei-Sheng Liu, Yuan Ze University (Taiwan); Jen-Inn Chyi, National Central University (Taiwan)

In this study, we utilized molecular beam epitaxy to grow the Type-II superlattice (T2SL) structure. By adjusting the Arsenic flux during the growth of the InAs layer, we investigated the influence of the V/III ratio on photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction of SWIR T2SL. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated an enhanced strain control down to 0.07%. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed that the sample with a lower V/III Ratio exhibited higher luminescence intensity. The findings from both measurements underscore the importance of adjusting the V/III Ratio for the InAs layer during the growth of the T2SL structure.

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Manuscript ID.  0896
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P021
Pin-Chih Liu InAs Quantum Dots with Emission Wavelength of 1.38 μm Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates
Pin-Chih Liu, Kai-Yang Hsu, Bhavya Kondapavuluri, Jhih-Han Lin, Hou-Yi Chen, Balaji Gururajan, Wei-Sheng Liu, Yuan Ze University (Taiwan); Jen-Inn Chyi, National Central University (Taiwan)

This study explores the extension of quantum dot (QD) wavelength to approximately 1.38 μm on GaAs substrates. Utilizing molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we investigate the impact of InGaAs strained buffer layer (SBL) thickness on InAs Quantum Dots (QDs). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal a redshift and narrower FWHM value as SBL thickness increases. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis demonstrates a clear trend between SBL thickness and quantum dot density. Optimal SBL thickness enhances uniformity and density, promising applications in facial recognition, automotive lidar, and optical communication.

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Manuscript ID.  0188
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P022
Tomoki Kusaka Nanophotonic Polarization Converter for Optical and THz Wireless Communications
Tomoki Kusaka, Junichi Fujikata, Tokushima University (Japan)

Metamaterial-based nanophotonic devices were numerically analyzed using the FDTD method to study polarization converters with high transmission and wide bandwidth in the optical and terahertz frequency ranges. First, the transmission characteristics of the incident polarization angle of the proposed polarization converter in the optical frequency band were investigated, and it was found that the transmitted light becomes clockwise circularly polarized when the incident linearly polarized light is 45°. Furthermore, similar results were obtained in the terahertz band, and a high-performance polarization converter was realized.

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Manuscript ID.  0935
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P023
Kai-Cheng Yu Quasi-Lasing of Green InGaN-based Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
Kai-Cheng Yu, Cheng-Jie Wang, Yu-Cheng Kao, Chia-Feng Lin, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

InGaN-based Green vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure had been demonstrated with top dielectric reflector and bottom porous distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the InGaN device without and with top dielectric mirrors were analyzed. The central wavelength and stopband width of porous DBR structure were measured at 522nm/75nm with 66.3 nm-thick porous GaN and 58.7 nm-thick non-etched GaN layer of the 20-pair stack structure. For the VCSEL structure, the line width of the ST-LED structure was reduced from 34.5 nm at 509.7 nm and 2.18 nm at 520.8 nm for the VCSEL structure.

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Manuscript ID.  0953
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P024
Yuan-Chun Chung Photo-electrical and Synaptic Properties of Flavin-DNA Biopolymer Devices
Yu-Chueh Hung, Yi-Ting Li, Yuan-Chun Chung, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

The photo-electrical and synaptic properties of flavin-doped DNA biopolymer devices are presented. The wavelength-dependent electric characteristics and the implementation in neuromorphic computing are demonstrated, which may facilitate the development of biomaterial-based devices with neuromorphic functionalities.

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Manuscript ID.  1115
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P025
Wei-Cheng Huang Plasmonic Resonance of GaZnO Metamaterials with Modification of Growth Temperature of Sapphire Substrate
Ho-Chine Lai, Wei-Cheng Huang, Yung-Chen Cheng, National University of Tainan (Taiwan); Shaobo Yang, Chih-Chung Yang, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

The plasmonic resonance characteristics of heavily Ga-doped ZnO (GaZnO) epilayers grown with sapphire substrate temperatures 235, 250, and 265 oC corresponding to Ga doping concentration 4.6, 3.5, and 3.0 at.% of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are explored. Hall effect measurements of epilayers show that free electron concentration reaches around 1021 cm−3. The plasmonic resonance wavelength are 1377, 1385, 1436 nm for Ga doping concentration 4.6, 3.5, and 3.0 at.%, respectively. Lower strain, loss, and surface roughness are observed in sample with doping concentration 3.5 at.%. All samples demonstrate columnar structures of GaZnO epilayers in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images.

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Manuscript ID.  1131
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0102-P026
Chun-Yu Lu Thickness-Tunable Graphene/Silver Nanoparticle Films for Near-Infrared Absorbers
Chun-Yu Lu, Xiaofei Xiao, Tadzio Levato, Technology Innovation Institute (United Arab Emirates)

We propose a way to take advantage of the mechanical properties of a twodimensional graphene layer to unlock the thickness limitation of particle-shape silver thin
films for near-infrared absorbers.This can be designed by staking graphene and silver thin
film on a substrate through a combination of a graphene transfer method and a magnetron
sputtering technique. We design the stacking of graphene/silver nanoparticle film on a
classical metal-insulator-metal configuration, which consists of a top-layer graphene/silver
nanoparticle layer and a bottom thick silver layer separated by a spacer SiO2 layer. The
experimental analysis of the device points out that nearly 100% absorptance can be achieved
in the near-infrared region.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices V
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  16:00-17:00
Presider: Prof. Yung-Chiang Lan (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
16:00 - 16:15
Manuscript ID.  0493
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0105-O001
Chi Ting Weng Nanoscaled Vibrational Strong Coupling with Atomically Thin Mid-Infrared Resonances
Chi Ting Weng, Jia-Wun Liaw, Chun-Yu Yang, Jin-Yen Lin, Chih-Yang Chang, Han-Siang Jhuang, Jui-Nung Liu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

We numerically demonstrate that plasmonic graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can serve as an atomically thick open-nanocavity for vibrational strong coupling (VSC), exhibiting extraordinary cooperativity in the nanoscale. The behaviors of the molecule-GNR hybrid system are analytically depicted using the temporal coupled mode theory (TCMT), showing good agreement with the numerical simulations. The atomically thick resonators offer a new route alternative to the commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities for VSC.

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16:15 - 16:30
Manuscript ID.  0557
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0105-O002
Shyam Narayan Singh Yadav Trap State Passivated Perovskite Quantum Dots/Graphene-Based Hybrid Gate-Free Photodetector Functionalized by Morphologically Controlled Gold Nanocrystals
Shyam Narayan Singh Yadav, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Chintam Hanmandlu, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Dinesh Kumar Patel, National Taiwan University (Taiwan), Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Germany); Rajan Kumar Singh, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Chun-Yen Chen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Yen-Yu Wang, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Chih-Wei Chu, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Chi-Te Liang, Chih-Ting Lin, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Yu-Jung Lu, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Ta-Jen Yen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are a promising candidate for photodetection due to their optical, and electrical characteristics, alongwith cost-effective solution processability. However, their optoelectronic performances hinder by their weak light-matter interaction. Here, we hybridize PQDs with shaped plasmonic gold nanocrystals (AuNCs) and graphene to demonstrate a superior photodetector through a synergetic effect. Our experimental results indicate that shaped AuNCs all contribute to better photodetection behaviors due to trap state passivation and enhanced charge carrier densities with a longer lifetime compared to that of pristine PQDs. In particular, the PQDs/RD-AuNCs/Gr photodetector demonstrated a record-high responsivity among the PQDs/AuNCs/Gr-based electrostatic gate-free photodetectors.

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16:30 - 16:45
Manuscript ID.  0792
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0105-O003
Anand Hegde Rapid Height-Dependent Evolutions of Plasmonic Merons
Anand Hegde, Han-Ting Lin, Chen-Bin Huang, Institute of Photonics Technologies (Taiwan)

We numerically investigate the characteristics of plasmonic merons near a metallic surface, revealing a pivotal height-driven transformation from Neel to Bloch-type. This dynamic transition occurs within a specific height range, marked by rapid evolution. The interplay between plasmonic spin-textures controlled by surface plasmon polaritons in the near field and edge-scattered fields in the far field triggers this phenomenon.

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16:45 - 17:00
Manuscript ID.  1052
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0105-O004
Li-Ming Chiang Anion Transportation in Vapor and Solid Phases of Hybrid Metal Halide Perovskite Nanowires
Li-Ming Chiang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Wei Zhang, Tsung-Sheng Kao, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Min-Hsiung Shih, Academia Sinica (Taiwan)

We initially employed the surface-initiated solution growth technique to synthesize perovskite nanowires. By using various ratios of methylammonium lead halide solutions, we successfully produced nanowires with halogen-mixed compositions. Analyzing the photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction characteristics provided us with comprehensive insights into the hybrid perovskite composition and the controllable light emission properties. To achieve precise control over the central emission wavelengths, we employed both vapor-phase and solid-phase anion exchange methods. This allowed us to finely adjust the proportions of halogen elements within the perovskite nanowires, opening up promising applications for these nanowires in areas such as light emission and sensing.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Nanophotonic Materials and Devices VI
Sunday, Dec. 3, 2023  09:00-11:00
Presider: Prof. Jung-Yao Chen (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan) Prof. Yu-Ju Hung (National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan)
Room: 92119 (靄雲廳) (1F)
09:00 - 09:15
Manuscript ID.  0943
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O001
Chi-Hsuan Chien Design of Tunable Lasers with External-Cavity Double Ring Resonators
Kai-Chun Ma, Chi-Hsuan Chien, San-Liang Lee, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

To realize a stable and widely tunable laser for applications in optical communication and sensing systems, we design and optimize a wavelength tunable laser forming with a gain chip and a silicon-photonics dual-ring resonator as an external cavity. The dual ring resonators have different free spectral ranges to employ the Vernier effect to enlarge the wavelength tuning ranges. The simulation indicates that the dual-ring resonator-based tunable laser achieves a wavelength tuning range of 77.67 nm, with a minimum side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 35 dB and an average SMSR of 43.8 dB.

  Preview abstract
09:15 - 09:30
Manuscript ID.  0952
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O002
Tzu-Wei Yeh Nanotransfer Printing of Aluminum Metasurfaces: A Cost-Effective Approach to Near-Infrared Cut-off Filter
Tzu-Wei Yeh, Yu-Heng Hung, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Chi-Sheng Chung, Shao-Jen Yeh, ASE Group (Taiwan); Hsin-Ying Lee, Chun-Hung Lin, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

This work employed nanotransfer printing (nTP), a simple method for fabricating plasmonic color filters. We employed e-beam deposition and nTP to transfer the metal array. Furthermore, by undergoing two rounds of nTP, we successfully accomplished the fabrication of a 3D metasurface with a straightforward and efficient approach. The optical properties of the fabricated plasmonic color filters were evaluated through simulation and experiment. We believe that nTP is a promising technique for metallic patterning, offering a viable approach for the fabrication of plasmonic metasurfaces.

  Preview abstract
09:30 - 09:45
Manuscript ID.  0194
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O003
Olena Vertsanova The powerful imaging and nanofabrication performance of Zeiss Crossbeam for nanophotonic materials research
Olena Vertsanova, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH (Germany), National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI” (Ukraine); Benjamin Tordoff, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH (Germany); Feng Lin Ng, Carl Zeiss Pte. Ltd (Singapore)

The electron microscopy techniques for nanofabrication and study of nanomaterials for photonics application are presented. New Zeiss solutions allow not only to produce of periodic nanostructures in different materials, but also to visualize the structure with high resolution during the process of nanofabrication. The benefits of Gemini electronic optics for high quality imaging and Ion-sculptor FIB column for sample preparation and nanostructuring are demonstrated.

  Preview abstract
09:45 - 10:00
Manuscript ID.  1070
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O004
Li-Ming Chiang Improved Film Quality and Optical Characteristics of Qausi-2D Layered Perovskite Through Solvent Engineering Technique
Li-Ming Chiang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Tsung-Sheng Kao, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Min-Hsiung Shih, Academia Sinica (Taiwan)

We explore a solvent engineering approach to enhance the quality and optical performance of quasi-2D perovskite thin films. By optimizing the ratio of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the solvent mixture and carefully controlling the timing of antisolvent dripping, we successfully synthesized quasi-2D perovskite thin films based on BA2PbI4 films with a surface coverage exceeding 98%. This method resulted in an increased absorption rate and improved photoluminescence emission. These findings can potentially be applied to enhance the optoelectronic properties of other 2D perovskite materials, making them promising candidates for use in light-emitting devices and energy-harvesting components.

  Preview abstract
10:00 - 10:15
Manuscript ID.  0415
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O005
Yu-Hung Peng A study on the structure and electrical property of In6Se7:P compounds grown by chemical vapor transport
Yu-Hung Peng, Ching-Hwa Ho, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

This study presents the synthesis and characterization of previously unexplored In6Se7 crystals, a III-VI class compound semiconductor with potential optoelectronic applications. In6Se7 crystals were grown using CVT method with ICl3 as transport agent. Structural analysis and the effects of P content on electrical properties were investigated, providing valuable insights into this field. EDS mapping and TEM confirm the high-quality of In6Se7:P crystals, while XRD and Raman reveal monoclinic crystal structure. In6Se7:P exhibit n-type behavior likely due to P-Se bonds. The work function of P-doped In6Se7 was measured, and P dopants are considered suitable donor-type impurities for future In6Se7 device applications.

  Preview abstract
10:15 - 10:30
Manuscript ID.  0613
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O006
Xue-Shun Lee Combing a metasurface and a liquid crystal module to achieve a full-color reflective display
Tsung-Yu Huang, Xue-Shun Lee, Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

In recent years, the concept of using metasurfaces integrated liquid crystals to achieve active control of hue has become increasingly important. However, this method lacked the ability to adjust brightness, limiting its practical applicability. In this study, we aim to design three metamaterial perfect absorbers as metasurfaces, combined with a liquid crystal module. These metamaterial perfect absorbers will correspond to one of the primary colors (red, blue, and green) and black, for two different polarization directions. By utilizing the liquid crystal module to rotate the incident light's polarization direction, we can adjust both the displayed hue and brightness.

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10:30 - 10:45
Manuscript ID.  0087
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O007
Yi-Jie Wang Enhanced Efficiency of Large-Area Photoconductive Emitters through Plasmonic Contact and Electrodes Design
Yi-Jie Wang, Pin-Han Lee, Pouya Torkaman, Shang-Hua Yang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

In this study, we propose a novel design for large-area photoconductive emitters using plasmonic contact electrodes. Our optimized design incorporates superlattices made of InGaAs and InAlAs materials, enabling efficient terahertz (THz) generation and detection. By enhancing carrier separation and acceleration within the device, we achieve significantly higher optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiencies compared to conventional designs. Furthermore, we comprehensively analyze the impact of electrode parameters, including individual pairs, emitter density, and exposed semiconductor area, on the emission efficiency. Our findings pave the way for advancements in THz technology, offering promising prospects for various applications in terahertz generation and detection systems.

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10:45 - 11:00
Manuscript ID.  1036
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0106-O008
Sheng-Wei Kao Multiple toroidal dipole bound states in the continuum in dielectric metasurfaces
Sheng-Wei Kao, Ruey-Lin Chern, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

We investigate the bound states in the continuum (BICs) in dielectric metasurfaces consisting of square patches deposited on a dielectric substrate. Symmetric-protected BICs occur at the Brillouin zone center, which are associated with extremely large quality factors and small linewidths. In particular, the BICs are identified as toroidal dipole (TD) modes characterized by the electric or magnetic fields bend into a torus, with the magnetic or electric circling around the surface. Both the electric or magnetic TDs are gathered in the unit cell to form the multiple TD modes.

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S1. Nanophotonic Materials and Devices

Poster Session III
Sunday, Dec. 3, 2023  09:00-11:00
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)

Manuscript ID.  0179
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P001
Huan-Teng Su Metasurface Resonant-Waveguide-Gratings Design by Using Topology Optimization
Huan-Teng Su, Lu-Yun Wang, Po-Cheng Yang, Jhih-Hao Huang, Yao-Wei Huang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

The resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) with in and out couplers have been demonstrated to perform selective color-filtering and beam steering. However, RWGs with forward design suffers lower efficiency that limit the applications. Here, we design a metasurface which composed of titanium dioxide RWGs on the glass substrate working at red, yellow, green, and blue wavelengths, simultaneously. And we improve the diffraction efficiency by using adjoint-based topology optimization. The diffraction efficiency of simulation is up to 77% with the Q-factor reaching 1367. Such a beam steering device opens a new paradigm for applications, including see-through optical combiners and augmented reality platforms.

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Manuscript ID.  0433
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P002
Yu-Ping Kuang A Multifunctional Plasmonic Sensor for Excellent UV Photodetection and NO2 Gas Sensing by an Array of Al Nanocaps on GaN Truncated Nanocones
Yu-Ping Kuang, Abhishek Dubey, Ta-Jen Yen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

In this work, we deliberately fabricate a heterogeneous array of Al nanocaps on a wide-bandgap semiconductor of GaN truncated nanocones, and then present a multifunctional plasmonic sensor for excellent UV photodetection and gas sensing. As a UV photodetector, we show maximum responsivity (1.8 × 108 AW-1) and detectivity (1.2 × 1018 Jones) at the resonance wavelength of 355 nm, which is based on our knowledge, the highest detectivity among GaN-based UV photodetectors. As a gas sensor, we detect a gas of NO2, and provide a superior response of 28% and a detection limit of 500 ppb, respectively

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Manuscript ID.  0528
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P003
Radhika Bansal GeSn Waveguide Photodetectors for Advanced Silicon Photonics applications.
Radhika Bansal, Guo-En Chang, National Chung Cheng University (Taiwan)

We demonstrated low temperature operation of GeSn waveguide photodetectors operating in 2µm wavelength band for advanced sensing applications such as quantum computing. Performance parameters such as optical response, dark current, cut off wavelength of fabricated device is analyzed at low temperature which open the avenue of advanced applications of silicon photonics devices in quantum technologies.

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Manuscript ID.  0544
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P004
Thi-Hoai Do Study the degradation of the metal electrode in Perovskite Light Emitting Diodes
Thi-Hoai Do, Yu-Fan Yin, Tzung-Fang Guo, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

From the observation of the black pattern in the electroluminescence image under different stored conditions, we verify the degradation mechanism of perovskite light-emitting diodes. Here, we provide an alternative way to suppress device degradation and emphasize the importance of metal electrodes. Finally, we suggest that quai-2D can reduce this degradation of intrinsic properties and point out Ag - stable cathode metal.

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Manuscript ID.  0574
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P005
Wen-Hsiang Wu Optical High-Q Resonance in Bound States in the Continuum and Whispering Gallery Modes for Lasing
Wen-Hsiang Wu, Kuo-Ping Chen, Institute of Photonics Technologies (Taiwan)

The development of micro and nanolasers is advancing through innovative concepts like Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) and Bound States in the Continuum (BICs). WGMs offer efficient light confinement but limited small radii. BICs, on the other hand, enhance Q factors by suppressing out-of-plane radiations, enabling chip-scale nanolasers with structured light emission, opening new possibilities for photonics applications.

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Manuscript ID.  0765
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P006
Komal Gupta Phase-Matching the Second-Harmonic Generation in a Silver Two-Wire Transmission-Line
Komal Gupta, Chen-Bin Huang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

We numerically investigate the second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of a silver plasmonic two-wire transmission-line. The intrinsic material property of silver enables greatly extended SHG coherence length between a particular set of propagating surface plasmon modes.

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Manuscript ID.  0803
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P007
Lu-Hsing Chen Enhanced Valley-Polarized Emission of monolayer hexagonal WS2 with Plasmonic Chiral Metasurfaces at Room-temperature
Lu-Hsing Chen, Kuo-Ping Chen, Institute of Photonics Technologies (Taiwan); Yu-Wei Liao, Institute of Photonic System (Taiwan)

Recently, hexagonal WS2 (h-WS2) with triangular heterogeneous defect domains show the promising results in valley polarized emission at room temperature. By illuminating WS2 with circularly polarized light and measuring the circularly polarized emission, the PL intensity is significantly difference at two circularly polarized emission with same circularly polarized light. In this work, we proposed monolayer (h-WS2) shows great selectively valley-polarized photoluminescence (PL) by combining with plasmonic-nanostructures. Chiral plasmonic metasurfaces are proposed combining with h-WS2 to strongly enhance the circular polarized selective of PL.

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Manuscript ID.  0768
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P008
Ming-Jyun Ye Revisable Tuning of Tamm Plasmon Polaritons
Ming-Jyun Ye, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Kuo-Ping Chen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Phase-change materials (PCMs) provide a specific combination of properties. The binary semiconducting chalcogenide Sb2S3 is consider one of the promising candidates, especially its intrinsic high refractive index, low loss and wide bandgap properties, in near infrared (NIR). Here, the Sb2S3 transformation from amorphous to crystal state embedded between the distribute Bragg reflector (DBR) and metal layer. At the interface between DBR and metal layer in specific parameter, Phase-change Tamm plasmon–polariton (PC-TPP) resonance could be produce. The PC-TPP resonance has a 70 nm modulation wavelength. Also, the resonance achieves around 100 nm-shifted in NIR at the proper incident angle.

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Manuscript ID.  0813
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P009
Hung-Jung Shen Tunable InP NW Lasing on WS2 via Modulating Gating Voltage
Hung-Jung Shen, Kuo-Ping Chen, Institute of Photonics Technologies (Taiwan)

Nanowire (NW) lasers has great potential in the field of optoelectronics. Nevertheless, tunning threshold usually need complicated fabrication process or extra energy doping. The carrier in monolayer WS2 can diffuse into the NW that can decrease the threshold of the NW lasing. Here we propose that put NW on monolayer WS2 and control the carrier density by modulating gating voltage. It indirectly affects the transformation of carrier from WS2 to NW. Eventually achieve the purpose of tuning InP NW lasing.

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Manuscript ID.  0845
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P010
Chih-Wei Wang Non-Equilibrium Properties of Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals.
Chih-Wei Wang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Mei-Li Hsieh, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA); Shawn-Yu Lin, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA), National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Jhih-Sheng Wu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We study thermal emission from a one-dimensional photonic crystal with an ensemble of two-level atoms.
Both light and matter are treated quantumly. The matter is modeled as an ensemble of two-level atoms, where the equilibrium population of electrons is the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The dynamics of photon energy density inside and outside the photonic crystals are investigated. The conditions and evolution of super-Planckian radiation are discussed.

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Manuscript ID.  0595
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P011
Hong-Jhang Syu Plasmonic-Photonic Mode Hybridization Induced Rabi Splitting and Its Biosensing Application
Hong-Jhang Syu, Shu-Cheng Lo, Academia Sinica (Taiwan); Pei-Kuen Wei, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), National Yang-Ming Chiao-Tung University (Taiwan)

Here we theoretically explored the biosensing application of the Rabi splitting (RS) induced by the strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and Tamm plasmon states (TPs). Previously, plasmonic biosensors were mostly performed by a pure plasmonic mode. However, we figured out that with the spectral integration method the surface sensitivity in the SPP and TPs generated RS region is about 1.32 times that in the pure SPP region. This indicates that while strong coupling weakened the original SPP, the original TPs split the electromagnetic fields to form new TPs-SPP modes, thereby enhancing the evanescent field for sensing applications.

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Manuscript ID.  0016
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P012
Li-Chung Yang Growth of epitaxial chalcopyrite thin films on mis-orientated GaAs substrates
Li-Chung Yang, Ming-Hong Wong, National Formosa University (Taiwan); Angus Rockett, Colorado School of Mines (USA)

We investigated the influence of mis-orientated GaAs (111)B substrates on the growth of epitaxial I-III-VI2 CuInSe2 chalcopyrite thin films. The epitaxial thin film exhibited several different features due to the availability of step and kink sites. The cmposition of the epitaxial film was in range of Cu-rich to Cu-poor on the identical GaAs (111)B substrate depending on the off-angle. A step flow growth mode was proposed that linear growth in the kink sites along [110] step and subsequently two-dimensional step flow (112) of chalcopyrite grew in Cu-poor region. The influence of off-angle substrate was significant for the epitaxial growth.

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Manuscript ID.  0033
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P013
Hsin Sun Leading the uniform distribution of nano-Ag in Al-doped ZnO film to enhance its application in soft touch sensing electrodes
Hsin Sun, Lin-Wei Hung, Shao-Ming Li, Yen-Sheng Lin, I-Shou University (Taiwan)

In this study, oxygen plasma etching was performed to roughen the surface structure of an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer. The distribution of Ag nanoparticles was optimized to improve the characteristics of a film and facilitate its application as a touch sensing electrode. As the result, the film’s resistance was 3.21 × 10−3 Ω-cm, its SE was 45.04%–52.48%, and its ST error was within 7.44%.

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Manuscript ID.  0034
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P014
Min-Hsuan Chen Adding nitrogen-mediated crystallization process to improved GZO thin film structures to apply on touch sensing
Min-Hsuan Chen, Ping-Tai Jiang, Yen-Sheng Lin, I-Shou University (Taiwan)

In this study, Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (GZO) had been used as material to apply on touch sensing. In addition, touch sensing properties of the GZO thin films are further improved by depositing different GZO layers with the nitrogen-mediated crystallization (NMC) as buffer layers. Finally, the thin film structure as GZO (200 nm)/NMC GZO (100 nm)/ PC plastic substrate was deposited in the N2/Ar flow ratio of 1/8 has optimum touch sensitivity, and is enhanced as 6.12% from 1.046 to 1.110 compared to the pure GZO (300 nm) thin film.

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Manuscript ID.  0035
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P015
Ming-Rong Chen Develop the n-ZnO/p-CuO thin film to apply on lower work temperature carbon monoxide gas sensor
Ming-Rong Chen, Chia-Wen Chang, Shao-Ming Li, Yen-Sheng Lin, I-Shou University (Taiwan)

In this study, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanofilms and Copper Oxide (CuO) nanostructures, and firstly the sputtering power was adjusted to study the structural changes of ZnO nanofilms surface porosity. By optimizing the process parameters and incorporating the CuO nanostructure, the sensing characteristics of the ZnO thin film can be improved and the lower work temperature CO gas reaction had been done.

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Manuscript ID.  0036
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P016
I-Ming Lung, Using inclined process to optimize the photoelectric properties of Zinc Oxide thin films
I-Ming Lung,, Yen-Sheng Lin, I-Shou University (Taiwan)

In this study, radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was applied in the deposition of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film, to improve the photoelectric properties of the ZnO thin film, inclined process was used to modify the thin-film deposition process. Specifically, the intermittent number (IN) and intermittent time (IT) were first adjusted to facilitate the formation of the thin film before the inclined fabrication. After the optimal angle of inclination was determined, rapid thermal annealing was used to further optimize the structure of the deposited thin film.

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Manuscript ID.  0057
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P017
M.H. Wong The surface polarities of I-III-VI2 CuInSe2/CuGaSe2 ordered vacancy compounds prepared by melting processes
M.H. Wong, L.C. Lee, C.H. Liao, Z.P. Huang, H.X. Chen, Y.S. Huang, W.H. Yang, T.P. Pan, L.C. Yang, National Formosa University (Taiwan)

Melting methods are used to prepare I-III-VI2 CuInSe2/CnGaSe2 ordered vacancy compounds (OVC). Three pure elements copper, indium or gallium and selenium are put into quartz tubes and sealed, and then melted in a high-temperature furnace. Ternary chalcopyrite crystals of Cupoor Cu1In1.6Se2.8 / OVC Cu1In3Se5 and Cu-poor Cu1Ga1.6Se2.8 / OVC Cu1Ga3Se5 are obtained. The grains sizes of these ternary compounds are larger than 400µm by SEM observation. XRD analysis shows that these compounds have strong (112) preferred orientation. The surfaces of the ordered vacancy compounds Cu1In3Se5 and Cu1Ga3Se5 are composed of (112)A [metal terminated surface] and (112)B [selenium terminated surface].

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Manuscript ID.  0346
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P018
Zong-Ping Wang A Comparative Study of the Gas Sensing Behavior of Fluorene-Based Derivatives with Various Annealing Temperature
Zong-Ping Wang, Li-Yin Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

In this research, we investigated the gas sensing behavior of two fluorene-based derivatives at different annealing temperatures. These derivatives were employed as the sensing materials for gas sensors featuring a vertical channel nano-porous diode structure. Our study revealed that these materials exhibited remarkable sensitivity to NO, with a detection limit below 100 ppb. This promising finding suggests their potential application in diverse fields, such as industrial and medical settings.

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Manuscript ID.  0592
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P019
Po-En Chiu Enhancing the Absorption of Plasmonic Metal Nano Arrays Using Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials
Po-En Chiu, Chih-Hsien Lai, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

The absorption spectrum of a metal nano-array is mainly determined by the structural shape, size, and environment. In this work, through numerical simulations, we aim to enhance the absorption spectrum using the multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials, thereby reducing the size dependence of the array structure. This approach offers the potential to precisely tune the metal nano-arrays absorption properties, thereby benefiting various applications in sensing and imaging.

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Manuscript ID.  0604
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P020
Xuan-Yu Shih Reflection spectra of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited with various shapes of silver nanoparticles
Hung Ji Huang, Xuan-Yu Shih, National Formosa University (Taiwan); Li-Yi Huang, Sy-Hann Chen, National Chiayi University (Taiwan); Hai-Pang Chiang, National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan); Jeffrey Chi-Sheng Wu, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Cheng-Liang Huang, National Chiayi University (Taiwan)

The reflection spectra presented the effects of attached metal nanoparticles adjacent to the TiO2 nanoparticles. The high refractive index of TiO2 nanoparticles breakdown the main plasmonic resonance modes on Ag nanoparticles and suppresses the main resonance peaks of the Ag nanoparticles. The homogeneously deposited TiO2 nanoparticles randomly scattered the incident light and broadened the absorption peaks of various samples.

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Manuscript ID.  0779
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P021
Po Sheng Shi Single-photon emitter from two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride induced by annealed
Kuo-Ping Chen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Po Sheng Shi, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

For quantum photonic applications, such as quantum communication, optical quantum information processing, and metrology, solid-state sources of single-photon emitters are highly needed. We report an effective method for generating single-photon emission in mechanically exfoliated hBN flakes by annealing. We compare the result of nitride-annealing and argon-annealing to identify which type of the defect we induced. The result of single-photon emission shows high stability and brightness. Our results provide an effective method for generating room-temperature single-photon emitters in 2D hBN

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Manuscript ID.  0849
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P022
Yu-Cheng Chou Simulation of Transient Behaviors of Thermal Radiation in a Cavity with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method
Yu-Cheng Chou, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Mei-Li Hsieh, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA); Shawn-Yu Lin, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA), National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Jhih-Sheng Wu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We study thermal radiation in a cavity. Such a system consists of light and matter. We assume that the matter is in thermal equilibrium and possesses a clearly defined temperature. The matter is modeled as dipoles of which the polarizations are gaussian random numbers and their spectra adhere to the black-body radiation principles. We implement the systems with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach is flexible regardless of geometries and is advantageous in studying temporal behaviors. We simulate thermal radiation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional cavities. The differences of the temporal dynamics between one-dimensional and two-dimensional cavities are also discussed.

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Manuscript ID.  1020
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P023
Arunima Jinachandran SERS-Active Silver Nanopopcorns Deposited on Porous Polycarbonate Membrane for Detection of Nitrofurazone
Arunima Jinachandran, SRM University AP (India); Tzyy-Jiann Wang, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan); Rajapandiyan Panneerselvam, SRM University AP (India)

We present the synthesis of plasmonic silver nanopopcorns by an one-step solution phase method for the antiobiotic detection of nitrofurazone. The hotspots formed in the nanoscale protrusions and crevices possesses strong electric field to enhance the Raman signal intensity of analyte through electromagnetic mechanism. The produced flexible SERS substrate owns superior detection performance of low limit of detection 1.18×10-9 M and high enhancement factor 2.52×108 for the detection of nitrofurazone.

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Manuscript ID.  0983
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P024
Tsai-Ti Tung Performance Enhancement of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes with Double Hole Transport Layers
Tsai-Ti Tung, Shih-Chia Huang, Chun-Yuan Huang, National Taitung University (Taiwan)

Quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) is a promising candidate of new generation for flat-panel displays for its bright and saturated emission colors. In the experiment, the effect of double hole transport layers (HTLs) consisting of poly-TPD and TFB on the performance of blue QLEDs was demonstrated. Compared to the QLED with single hole injection layer of poly-TPD, the QLED with double HTLs was with a turn-on voltage of 3.0 V, a maximum brightness of 121580 cd/m2 and current efficiency of 10.85 cd/A.

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Manuscript ID.  1105
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P025
Cheng Hung Simulation-Based Design of Dual-Focusing Metalens Exploiting Asymmetric Spin-Orbit Interaction
Cheng Hung, Kuang Yuh Huang, Institute of Mechanical Engineering (Taiwan); Yuan Luo, Institute of Medical Device and Imaging (Taiwan)

This study presents a GaN-based metalens designed for dual focusing through asymmetric spin-orbit interaction (A-SOI). We optimize meta-atom parameters to achieve crucial 2π phase convergence, ensuring high diffraction efficiency. Thanks to the merits of the geometric phase, the so-called PB phase, which gives the unit cell another way to manipulate phase under both right and left circular polarization. This metalens exhibits the exceptional ability to focus light at distinct positions on the optic axis. This capability shows significant potential, particularly in the field of high-resolution microscopy, indicating the possibility of advancing imaging technology.

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Manuscript ID.  1116
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P026
Jheng-Yi Li Modulation of Interface Dipoles of PEDOT:PSS/SiOx/Si Hybrid Photodetectors via Interface Engineering
Jheng-Yi Li, Ta-Cheng Wei, Po-Hsuan Hsiao, Tsung-Yen Wu, Chia-Yun Chen, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

The promising hybrid photodetector design was realized through the incorporation of PEDOT:PSS tunnel layer with SiOx/Si nanowires (SiNWs) (Fig.1), which went beyond the intrinsic limitation of band-gap associated photosensing characteristics of conventional Si semiconductors toward revolutionarily turning into wavelength-selective features (Fig.2). The optical simulation results (Fig.3) demonstrate that possibly minimizing the internal reflection of incoming lights, which benefitted the improvement of wavelength-selective photoresponses. We anticipated the design strategy along with detailed explorations on the spectral selectivity of detectors could open up the promising employment of advanced optoelectronic devices, optical communication (Fig.4) and other functional applications.

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Manuscript ID.  1122
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P027
Tzu-Hui Sun The Investigation of Single Mode Lasing in Photonic Crystal Microdisk Cavity
Tzu-Hui Sun, Wei-Chen Lin, Zhen-Zhe Chen, Jui-Tse Tsai, Ya-Ting Tsai, Chao-Chieh Cheng, Shu-Wei Chang, Min-Hsiung Shih, Academia Sinica (Taiwan)

In this study, we investigated a photonic crystal microdisk cavity laser to eliminate the degenerate modes and achieve single-mode lasing action. The lasing properties of the whispering gallery modes including lasing spectral, light-in-light-out curves, and lasing linewidth were characterized in the study. Additionally, we analyzed the lasing linewidth by varying the hole radius to verify the single mode.

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Manuscript ID.  1126
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P028
Bo-Wei Huang Design and Performance Analysis of Moiré metalens
Bo-Wei Huang, Cheng Hung Chu, Kuang-Yuh Huang, Yuan Luo, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

In conventional microscopes or endoscopes, the depth of information that can be observed from samples is limited. By integrating varifocal metalens into microscope or endoscope systems, observation at different depths of the sample can be achieved, enabling the reconstruction of three-dimensional images. In this work, simulation of the focal-field distribution of varifocal metalens is performed using FDTD simulation software. The simulation results demonstrate that the focal position can be tuned by rotating the relative angle between the component metasurfaces. The present results can be utilized for parameter optimization and pre-manufacturing validation.

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Manuscript ID.  0485
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P029
Zhi-Xian Wu Defect Detection and Analysis of Applied Molten KOH Etched Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC Wafers
Zhi-Xian Wu, Yu-Chun Huang, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Chih-Chiang Yang, Department of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University (Taiwan); Tsung-Hsin Lee, Metal Industries Research & Development Centre (Taiwan)

This study focuses on the destructive etching of semi-insulating 4H-SiC wafers using molten KOH, which were generated by the PVT method. The wafers were then analyzed using optical microscopy to examine defects, surface morphology, and dimensions. The etching depth was measured using a granite measuring stand, while the profile and size of the etch pits were observed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Through precise control of etching temperature and time, two typical defects, TSD and MP, were confirmed on the industrial-grade semi-insulating 4H-SiC Wafer.

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Manuscript ID.  0605
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P030
Zhen-Yu You Variation of the reflection spectrum by microwave thermal treatment of the synthesized Au/Ag dendritic nano forest
Hung Ji Huang, Zhen-Yu You, National Formosa University (Taiwan); Li-Yan Wu, Yung-Sheng Lin, National United University (Taiwan)

The reflection spectra presented the effects of thermal treatment by microwave heating on the samples of fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (FAGRR) synthesized Au or Ag dendritic nano forests (DNFs) on Si substrate. The samples of dense Au samples presented increased optical reflection after microwave thermal treatment while the Ag samples presented a slight decrease.

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Manuscript ID.  0513
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0103-P031
Wen-You Wang GeSn Photomixer For THz Source
Wen-You Wang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

In this work, we present a THz source of phosphorus doped GeSn photomixer. It can generate continuous-wave.And GeSn in process is much cheaper than III-V group material.The result tell us that GeSn can become a new material for terahertz technology in
the future.

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