Session Index

S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering I
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  13:00-15:00
Presider: Prof. Ching-Cherng Sun (National Central University, Taiwan) Prof. Jui-Wen Pan (National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
13:00 - 13:30
Manuscript ID.  0642
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-I001
Invited Speaker:
Ivan Moreno
Nonimaging optics design of metalens
Ivan Moreno, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

We show some methods for optical designing metalenses that deal with the optimal transfer of light energy, i.e. for light concentration and illumination applications. Owing to its compactness, flatness, and high design flexibility, metasurface-based flat optics may solve some problems in the nonimaging optics field, which deals with light concentration and illumination. We explain the latest advances on this topic. We discuss two algorithms for uniform illumination design with metasurfaces: ray mapping method, and Monge–Ampere equation method. And we discuss the string method for efficient light concentration with flat optics.

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13:30 - 13:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0761
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O001
Yu-Chen Chen Enhancing the Outcoupling of Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer by Magnetic Dipole Resonance
Yu-Chen Chen, Wei-Xuan Huang, Sih-Wei Chang, Hsuen-Li Chen, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

Near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) between different materials is crucial for near-field applications. A groundbreaking achievement demonstrates near-field thermal radiation produced through the interaction of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) with magnetic dipole resonances. Both simulation and experiments affirm that silicon (Si) particles can outcouple energy with polar materials' SPhPs within the near-field range, subsequently scattering electromagnetic energy into the far field. Spin-coating with Si particles emerges as a simple, low-cost, and non-destructive method to effectively increase surface emission, holding potential for far-field applications across various sizes of polar materials.

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13:45 - 14:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0195
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O002
Yu-Chen Liou Temperature effect in a hybrid photonic-crystal/liquidcrystal structure in the near-infrared range
Yu-Chen Liou, Institute of Photonic System (Taiwan); Guan-Fu Sung, College of Photonics (Taiwan); Wei Lee, Institute of Imaging and Biomedical Photonics (Taiwan)

This research presents a novel approach to creating a key component for a nearinfrared spectrometer with wavelength tunability. The core component is based on a liquid
crystal (LC)-in-cavity structure, forming a hybrid photonic crystal (PC). To investigate the
temperature-tunable defect-mode resonance peaks in the cell, we measured and simulated
temperature-dependent birefringence of the LC used as the defect layer. Our finding illustrates
the behavior of wavelength shift of the resonance peaks as the temperature rises, with blueshift
and redshift observed in distinct temperature ranges. The designed PC/LC structure emerges as
an attractive candidate for spectrometer and optical communication applications.

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14:00 - 14:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0440
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O003
Jia-Huo Chen Ultrafast Modulation Capabilities Through Super-High-N Chiral Photonic Crystal's Tunability
Jia-Huo Chen, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan); Chun-Wei Chen, The Pennsylvania State University (USA), Yale University (USA); Ting-Mao Feng, Chih-Wei Wu, Tsung-Hsien Lin, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan); Iam-Choon Khoo, The Pennsylvania State University (USA)

Ultra-high N-type chiral photonic crystals (CPC) have recently emerged as a breakthrough in photonics. With an exceptionally large number of periods (N), CPC exhibits extraordinary optical properties, including giant optical polarization rotation and dynamic tunability. This article explores the unique capabilities of CPC in high-transmission spectral regions and its potential applications in optical communications and ultrafast laser technology. The prospects of ultra-high N-type CPC are discussed, highlighting its impact on polarization manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses and dynamic polarization control of sub-picosecond laser pulses.

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14:15 - 14:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0884
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O004
Po-Yuan Chen Using Phase Shifting Fringe Projection Profilometry to Measure the Shape of Small Objects.
Po-Yuan Chen, Hsiao-Chiao Fang, Shih-Kang Lin, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cheng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

In contour measurement technology, fringe projection offers non-contact advantages and widespread application. This paper presents a method using the five-step phase-shifting approach to reconstruct 3D profiles of small objects. Its advantage lies in high tolerance for phase errors and accurate measurements. Precision is vital for fringe phase in profilometers. This study utilizes tailored transmissive masks to project nearly perfect sine wave fringes, followed by Fourier filtering and averaging to enhance fringe accuracy.

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14:30 - 14:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0886
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O005
Pei-shu Hsieh Investigation into the Lateral Intensity of Solid-State Long-Range Spotlight
Pei-shu Hsieh, Hung-Wei Chang, Chi-Shou Wu, Shih-Kang Lin, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cherng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

In this study, we investigate the lateral luminance of long-distance solid-state lighting projection lamps. The production of long-distance projection lights is arranged in a 4×4 array, and the projection distance can reach 4.17 km. Using 25 sets of projection lights, the projection distance can be extended up to 20 km. Experiments indicate that different horizontal placements will impact the short-range visual effect, whereas there is no discernible difference at long distances. Altering the placement of the projection lamps does not affect their visual contrast over long distances.

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14:45 - 15:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0409
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0501-O006
Yuh-Chyi Chang Fabrication of Super-High-Period-Number Chiral Photonic Crystals via Dual-Frequency Field Assembly
Yuh-Chyi Chang, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan); Chun-Wei Chen, Yale University (USA), The Pennsylvania State University (USA); Ting-Mao Feng, Chih-Wei Wu, Tsung-Hsien Lin, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan); Iam-Choon Khoo, The Pennsylvania State University (USA)

Extensive investigation reveals the dynamic evolution of cholesteric helical self-assembly and defect formation, with electric fields at different frequencies effectively eliminating unremovable defects and controlling helix alignment. A dual-frequency field assembly technique enables stable, well-aligned cholesteric liquid crystals of unprecedented thickness, offering compactness, high transmission, dynamic tunability, large polarization rotation, and versatile switching/modulation possibilities for ultrafast and continuous-wave lasers across visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared regimes.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Poster Session I
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  13:30-16:30
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)
Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0963
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P001
Ya-Hsin Hsiao Exploring Asymmetric Reflection at Exceptional Points in Plasmonic Non-Hermitian Metasurfaces
Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Po-Sheng Huang, Pin Chieh Wu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Non-Hermitian metasurfaces can exhibit unique and unconventional optical behaviors due to the interaction between gain and loss, including effects like unidirectional reflection, nonreciprocal transmission, and enhanced sensitivity. Here, we designed a plasmonic non-Hermitian metasurface operating at an exceptional point (EP) for asymmetric reflection, and introduced Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase to achieve abnormal reflection of two degenerate circular polarized (CP) light under linear polarized (LP) light incidence.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0782
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P002
Fan-Chang Meng Sub-KHz Narrow Linewidth Fiber Laser based on Saturable Absorber and Subring Resonators
Fan-Chang Meng, Zi Wang, Shien-Kuei Liaw, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Hiroki Kishikawa, Tokushima University (Japan); Chi-Wen Liao, Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan)

This study proposed a high-quality fiber ring laser combining four-subring resonators and a saturable absorber within a ring cavity. A non-pumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is introduced as the saturable absorber (SA) within the ring structure. we arrange four subrings with different lengths to form the four-subring resonators, achieving a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation. At a pump power of 100 mW, the laser maximum power and wavelength deviations during a one-hour test were measured to be 0.01 dB and 0.059 nm, respectively. we measured an ultra-narrow linewidth of 620 Hz.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0949
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P003
Han-Ya Hsu Co-optimization of Phase and Amplitude for Beam Deflection Metasurfaces
Han-Ya Hsu, Po-Sheng Huang, Pin Chieh Wu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Most metasurfaces suffer from low reflection efficiency in practical applications because they typically focus only on the phase profile during component design. To enhance their real-world applicability, we have developed a method that incorporates amplitude modulation into the design of beam deflection metasurfaces. With our approach, we have achieved a significant improvement in deflection efficiency, increasing it by approximately 60% for a 5° deflection angle and around 39% for a 25° deflection angle.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0892
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P004
Chung-Wei Lin Diffraction Efficiency Enhancement of Volume Holographic Near-Eye-Display
Chung-Wei Lin, Chih-Yao Chang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cherng Sun, Tsung-Hsun Yang, National Central University (Taiwan)

The research is to improve the efficiency of light transmission through a light guide with two volume holographic optical elements (VHOE). When light transmit in light guide, the angle tolerance causes filtering effects on mismatch wavelengths. To solve this problem, we simulate the wavelength distribution by using VOHIL after passing through the hologram. By recording the dispersive elements, the required wavelength distribution is created in order to direct different wavelengths to different angles. In addition, through the combination of phase superposition and dispersion elements, which utilizes the energy of the light source more efficiently and enhance the optical system efficiency.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0767
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P005
Sheng-Jie Lu Method for extracting structural information from heliconical structures using the Berreman 4 × 4 matrix
Sheng-Jie Lu, Tseng-Yu Shiang Shiang, Chi-Tang Huang, Ko-Ting Cheng, National Central University (Taiwan)

In this study, an electrically tunable color filter has been demonstrated based on the modulation of heliconical structures of chiral nematics. In contrast to conventional chiral nematics with a bend elastic constant ( K33) larger than a twist one (K22), the chiral nematics with K33 smaller than K22 can maintain their helical textures while raising applied voltages. Apart from the demonstration of the tunability of heliconical structures, the structural information for the heliconical applied with different voltages has been extracted by the simulated spectra successfully.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0787
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P006
Po-Kai Chang Engineering Leaky Bloch Modes and Mie Resonance in Dielectric Gratings for Optical Combiner
Po-Kai Chang, Jing-Ya Lin, Peichen Yu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

In our study, we design and fabricate an optical combiner based on a SiNx dielectric grating to serve as a reflective filter with an incident angle of 58 degrees. By optimizing the structural parameters with Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), the spectral positions of Leaky Bloch mode and Mie resonance of the one-dimensional grating can be tuned to produce a high reflectivity of 78% at a wavelength of 500nm for the transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. Additionally, a two-dimensional grating filter with a reflectivity of 73% at 532nm wavelength is designed, which is insensitive to the polarization of the incident light.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0580
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P007
Bo-Yi Wu Study on Beam Deflection of Non-Periodic Blazed Grating Based on Optical Phased Array for LiDAR Application
Bo-Yi Wu, Chun-Nien Liu, Wood-Hi Cheng, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

In this study, we present we present a Michelson interferometer to measure the phase change of the spatial light modulators (SLMs). In addition, we also compare the deflection angle and deflection efficiency of the beam under different periodic blazed gratings. Finally, at the maximum deflection angle of ±3.7°, the diffraction efficiency reaches 53%, and the side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is lower than 3dB.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0178
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P008
Chih-An Liu Computer Backlight Setting Effect on Concentration
Chih-An Liu, Jui-Yu Lin, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Yi-Siang Wang, Hong-Wei Yang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long-term exposure to blue-enriched computer screen backlight may lead to eye strain and discomfort, affecting concentration. To investigate, we attempted herein using typing speed to reflect the concentration under the influence of blue light. The results showed the typing speed to decrease from 25 words per minute to 23 after reading a novel with a traditional black text on white background for 30 minutes. Upon switching to a white text on dark background, the typing speed surprisingly increased from 24 words to 26, indicating blue light to have a profound effect on concentration.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0558
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P009
Hung-Yi Lee Development and Integration of MEMS LiDAR Module for Autonomous Vehicle
Hung-Yi Lee, Chuan Mao Sheng, Nien Liu Chen, Hi Cheng Wood, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

In this study, three wavelengths of 1540nm, 1550nm, and 1560nm, are employed to create a 120-degree MEMS LiDAR. This LiDAR configuration is optimized for short distances, allowing for simultaneous detection of both left and right lanes. The experimental findings indicate a remarkable 130-meter detection range in long-distance assessments, coupled with a consistent field of view and frame rate performance, with no instances of dropped frames. These favorable characteristics position it as a highly suitable solution for integration in autonomous vehicles.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0718
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P010
Guan-Wei Huang FOV50-Degree Projection Lens Design, The Relationship Between Optical Distortion and TV Distortion
Guan-Wei Huang, Wen-Shing Sun, Jyun-Yi Yu, National Central University (Taiwan); Yi-Lun Su, Taiwan Instrument Research Institute (Taiwan)

This study proposes a projection lens for MR systems. This projection lens features a 50-degree of the lens system, with the entrance pupil at the first surface. The article will discuss the design specifications and image quality of this lens. And this article will discuss optical distortion and the relationship between TV Distortion and then follows optical rules.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0683
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P011
Hsiang-Hsun Tsai Machine Learning for Improving Image Quality Under Michelson Interferometer Vibrations
Hsiang-Hsun Tsai, Hsi-Fu Shih, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan); Yi-Hsuan Yang, Feng Chia University (Taiwan)

This study employs a novel strategy that combines machine learning and Wiener filter methods to improve the quality of interference images captured by a Michelson interferometer in vibrational environments. We combine advanced filter techniques with carefully constructed machine learning models to enhance interferometric images acquired under the influence of vibration conditions. Compared with traditional image quality improvement methods, our method has the ability to predict the quality of interference images, and can exclude low-quality images in advance, and its average accuracy is as high as 99.81%.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0889
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P012
Ming-Yuan Chen Research On High-Speed Photography Based On HighIntensity Infrared Light Source
Ming-Yuan Chen, Ting-Wei Hsu, Chi-Shou Wu, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cherng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

This paper aims to create a high-intensity infrared light as a light source. Its
purpose is not only for supplemental lighting in high-speed cameras but also for tracking the
movement of objects during motion. Subsequently, the video will be segmented into frames
for baseball analysis. Through this photo analysis, parameters such as ball velocity and pitch
type can be determined for baseball analysis.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0354
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P013
Po-Jen Yu Terahertz Lenses with Mask Stereolithography 3D Printing Technology
Po-Jen Yu, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Tsung-Chieh Tseng, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Yu-Hang Wang, You-Chia Chang, Shang-Hua Yang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

3D printing technology is one most popular manufacturing techniques for prototyping while developing in terahertz (THz) technology. This work provides a new possibility of terahertz passive devices fabricated by masked stereolithography (mSLA) 3D printing technology. By designing and characterizing 3D printed THz lenses, our research showcases the feasibility of producing THz passive components through mSLA and demonstrates their performance and reliability in the real world.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0209
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P014
Ping-Ching Hsieh Laser direction switching based on cholesteric liquid crystals
Ping-Ching Hsieh, Ting-Mao Feng, Yi-Fan Wang, Heng-Yi Tseng, Cheng-Chang Li, Hung-Chang Jau, Chie-Tong Kuo, Tsung-Heisn Lin, Chun-Ta Wang, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan)

Photonic crystal lasers employing cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) offer reduced threshold levels and compact sizes. We researched laser direction using CLC's planar and uniform lying helix (ULH) states. Temperature increases switch the CLC to the planar state, shortening the wavelength, while a perpendicular electric field in ULH state increases the pitch for diverse wavelength tunability in thermally tunable lasers.

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Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0217
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P015
Yung-Han Ho Controlling the chirality of light emission in thin-film lasers with liquid photonic crystal mirrors
Yung-Han Ho, Yi-Jyun Ke, Hung-Chang Jau, Ting-Mao Feng, Chun-Ta Wang, Tsung-Hsien Lin, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan)

Photonic crystal laser consist of cholesteric liquid crystals mirrors can emit specific circular polarization light according to pitch number of chiral mirrors. By using Berreman numerical method and experiments, we verified that different emission chirality changes depending on pitch numbers. Besides, we discuss the effect of the defect layer thickness on the wavelength. The results not only show the realization of DBR laser with controllable circular polarization ratios in the emitted laser light but provide significant potential development of micro-laser sources with versatile emission properties.

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Manuscript ID.  0947
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P016
Yi-Chi Chen Plasmonic Topological Insulators with Complementary Dual-Layered Honeycomb Metal Structures Analyzed by FDTD Method
Yi-Chi Chen, Shih-hui Chang, Hung Yu Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

EM duality can be found with complementary patch and aperture structure in plasmonic Hexagonal lattice where both have the same dispersion relation but different TE/TM characteristics. Stacking the patch and aperture creates a 3D metal complementary structure and opens a bandgap at the K and K' points and forms Pseudospin states with valley degree of freedom. By combining the dual-layered structure and its flipped structure side by side, a boundary is formed. Exciting with pseudo-spin at the boundary allows for the observation of electromagnetic waves being confined to the edge with unidirectional propagation.

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Manuscript ID.  0979
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P017
En-Ci Gu Calculation of Chern Numbers in Valley Hall Plasmonic Topological Insulators by FDTD Method
Jia-Sheng Liou, En-Ci Gu, Shih-Hui Chang, NCKU (Taiwan)

This paper investigated the topological properties of plasmonic photonic topological insulators using the valley Hall theoretical models, along with the numerical simulation method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). It proposed a finite-discrete reciprocal lattice Chern number FDTD calculation method to determine the topological characteristics of the structures. The influence of different excitation methods on the Chern number of plasmonic topological insulators is explored.

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Manuscript ID.  0656
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P018
Yuan-Kai Zhou Designs of meta-lenses for optical fiber coupling
Yuan-Kai Zhou, Jin-Li Wong, Guo-Dung Su, National Taiwan University (NTU) (Taiwan)

In the last two decades, fiber-optic communication and photonic integrated circuits have been popularized rapidly. However, the dimension difference between optical fiber devices and photonic chips makes the design of fiber-to-chip couplers challenging. To solve this problem, several coupling strategies have been proposed, such as inverted taper-based structures, grating couplers and meta-material based couplers. In this paper, we attempted to design a high-efficiency metamaterial-based couplers for a quantum fiber-optic communication system. We theoretically show that the power efficiency of our design reach 85% with the MFD less than 3um.

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Manuscript ID.  0798
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P019
Shyh-Tsong Lin Instantaneous phase-shifting digital holographic microscope
Shyh-Tsong Lin, Yang-Jun Lin, Chang-Ping Pu, Jing-Heng Lin, Te-Chao Hu, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

Digital holographic microscopy combines digital holography with microscopy,
breaking through the limitations of traditional microscopes. It allows for numerical
reconstruction of the object's wavefront, enabling computer-controlled focusing without the
need for mechanical adjustments. Through analysis, it provides comprehensive information
about the light waves, including amplitude and phase. This allows for observing samples beyond
colored objects and provides more detailed information.

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Manuscript ID.  0907
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P020
Hong-Ru Feng Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar by Finite-Different Time-Domain Method
Hong-Ru Feng, Yi-Chien Lin, Shih-Hui Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Scans of different targets are conducted using theoretical ISAR and the FDTD simulated ISAR method. First, the object consisting of a single point and two points were scanned and the results showed that both theoretic ISAR and FDTD-simulated ISAR successfully imaged a single point or two points. However, FDTD resulted in double ghost image. The target was changed to an actual aircraft. The results showed that theoretical ISAR was able to successfully reproduce the contours of the aircraft, while the FDTD-simulated ISAR only provided a rough depiction of the aircraft's shape.

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Manuscript ID.  0911
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P021
Yung-Chi Chen Modeling of Slot Antenna Arrays fed by Photonic Topological Waveguides based on Quantum Spin Hall Effect by FDTD Method
Yu-Hsing Lin, Yung-Chi Chen, Shih-Hui Chang, National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) (Taiwan)

This study primarily showcases the slot antenna array fed by photonics topological insulator operating at 60GHz by FDTD method. The simulation results show us The excitation efficiency of the array antenna using photonics topological insulator feed is better than that using microstrip-line feed.

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Manuscript ID.  1125
Paper No.  2023-FRI-P0501-P022
Yi-Ting Chen Miniaturized Light Field Microscopy for Three-Dimensional Imaging Applications
Yi-Ting Chen, National Taiwan University (Taiwan)

A light field microscope can capture not only the intensity of light rays from objects in a scene but also their direction and angle by using a specialized lens array. Through post-processing, images of objects with different focal plans can be obtained. In this work, a miniaturized light field device for live organism imaging is proposed.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering II
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023  15:15-17:30
Presider: Prof. Hsuen-Li Chen (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Prof. Cheng-Huan Chen (National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
15:15 - 15:45
Manuscript ID.  0650
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-I001
Invited Speaker:
Morgan Lu
Pancake lens design and simulation for VR glasses
Morgan Lu, Synopsys (Taiwan)

With the development of the metaverse, virtual reality (VR) is becoming more and more popular, so the
design process for these systems is rapidly evolving. Designing a VR system that features pancake lenses
can produce a system with impressive optical performance as well as a competitive advantage in size,
weight, and cost.
The main design concept of a pancake lens is a folded ray path where polarized rays reflect between
polarization elements. This can be beneficial for increasing the total optical path length within a shorter
overall length. In other words, it allows you to decrease the thickness between the display and human
eye, which can significantly reduce the volume required for the helmet unit.
A pancake lens system includes three primary parts: a lens module, polarization elements, and human
visual components. For the lens module, imaging performance is the most important aspect that needs to
be considered and optimized. Precisely simulating image quality and efficiently optimizing with design
requirements are key for lens design. For the polarization elements, you must consider the “polarization
axis” in the computation. Polarization properties are usually applied to a curved lens surface in pancake
lens system, because the polarization axis varies along a curved surface. If you used a flat polarizer, the
polarization axis would be the same for each point on the lens surface, and the result would be very
different from the curved lens case. Lastly, we must combine all components and check the visualization
effect to discover if any anomalies exist. For example, a non-ideal polarization state may cause issues
such as leaked rays, flare, or ghost images. These must be identified and reoptimized at a system level.
This talk will introduce an integrated solution to a pancake lens design using Synopsys CODE V, RSoft
DiffractMOD RCWA, and LightTools software. CODE V is an imaging design tool for modeling manytypes of imaging optical systems. We will use it to build a triplet lens and optimize the lens to meet the
specifications. RSoft DiffractMOD is an efficient tool for computing periodical structures. In this case
study, we will use a wire grid polarizer and retarder modeled in RSoft DiffractMOD to selectively
transmit and reflect light. Once we complete the lens design and polarization elements design, the results
will be imported into LightTools, where we will model the displays and eye receiver model and perform
system simulation. We can also use LightTools features to filter the primary path and unwanted path for
stray light analysis. With this seamless cross-product workflow, we can easily achieve the desired
performance and reduce stray light impact for this VR system.

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15:45 - 16:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0070
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O001
Wei-Cheng Hung An Immersive Head-Mounted Display using a Low Aberration Liquid Crystal Lens
Wei-Cheng Hung, Tzu-Yu Tai, Jui-Wen Pan, Shie-Chang Jeng, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

We demonstrate an immersive head-mounted display (HMD) system in which a hole-patterned electrode (HPE) liquid crystal (LC) lens with a low aberration is incorporated, which is suitable for both hyperopic and myopic users.

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16:00 - 16:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0271
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O002
Kai-Hsiang Wang Model-based Adaptive Optics for Multiphoton Microscopy
Kai-Hsiang Wang, Jui-Tse Yang, Cheng-Jung Yang, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Multiphoton excited fluorescence microscopy (MPEFM) systems have emerged as
powerful imaging tools in life science and biomedical research due to their high-resolution
imaging capabilities, deep tissue penetration, and three-dimensional reconstruction capabilities. In this study, we present the integration of adaptive optics (AO) into an MPEFM system to enhance the image quality through aberration correctio. By harnessing the high responsivity of a deformable mirror (DM) and employing Zernike polynomials to represent
various aberrations, we achieved imaging quality improvement. Before aberration correction, a three-step identification process was implemented to accurately compensate each aberration.

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16:15 - 16:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0885
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O003
Cheng-Yang Lee Research on White and Infrared LED Arrays Applied in Automotive Headlamp
Cheng-Yang Lee, Mei-Lin Chen, Chi-Shou Wu, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cherng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

We propose a novel optical design concept for automotive headlamp. The low beam of this optical system utilizes visible light to illuminate the road, while the high beam employs 850nm infrared light to detect sensors on oncoming vehicles. The low beam mode is designed in accordance with the ECE R112 vehicle safety regulations.

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16:30 - 16:45 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0376
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O004
Siang-Yu Yeh Neural Network Assisted Deformable Mirror Identification at Oblique Incidence
Siang-Yu Yeh, Cheng-Yu Wu, Xin-Li Lee, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Due to the incident angle change and the coupling effect of DM channels, to identify the DM voltage vectors for generating individual Zernike mode is complicated and not intuitive. The present study proposes the deep learning neural network to assist the DM identification and find the control vectors. We have successfully trained the SHWS analysis model. A DM with tip-tilt compensation is placed at angle of 45 degree with the optical axis so that the reflected laser power efficiency can be maximized due to no beam splitter is required.

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16:45 - 17:00 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0790
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O005
Daryl Lim Optical Simulations for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Optimization of Signal Collection Optics
Daryl Lim, C.S. Suchand Sandeep, Murukeshan Vadakke Matham, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a versatile tool used for elemental analysis. However, there are certain issues associated with repeatability and sensitivity when dealing with low sample concentrations in liquid LIBS. In addition, the measurements can be time-consuming. Therefore, it is very important to optimize the signal collection optics of the LIBS system to improve signal collection efficiency. In this work, we report a method to optimize LIBS signal collection optical system using optical simulations with a commercial ray tracing package, TracePro®. LIBS signal recorded using the optimized system is also presented.

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17:00 - 17:15 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  0939
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O006
Hao-Wen Chia Development of a Wafer Warpage Measurement Technique Based on Shadow Moiré
Hao-Wen Chia, Hung-Lin Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Yang, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

Warpage measurement of unpolished wafers is a research topic to be overcome. Due to the fact that the surfaces of such wafers can cause the measurement beam to travel along unexpected paths, most optical inspection techniques cannot accurately provide information about the warpage of unpolished wafers. To overcome this problem, we propose a wafer warpage measurement technique based on the shadow moiré effect. Experimental results prove that this technique can accurately measure wafer warpage, with a measurement resolution superior to sub-micron levels.

  Preview abstract
17:15 - 17:30 Award Candidate (Paper Competition)
Manuscript ID.  1013
Paper No.  2023-FRI-S0502-O007
Thi-Thu-Ngoc Le Maintaining the Murcott Quality using UVC LED Array
Thi-Thu-Ngoc Le, National Central University (Taiwan); Chung-Ta Liao, Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station (Taiwan); Chi-Shou Wu, Shih-Kang Lin, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Yeh-Wei Yu, Ching-Cherng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

We designed and fabricated a UVC LED array that has the potential to limit the fungal infection for murcotts. The UVC LED array was designed suitable for 16 occupied positions of Murcotts. The irradiance was carefully measured on the target section. In terms of vivo conditions, the observation after several weeks of treatment disclosed that the disease symptoms on the irradiated murcotts saw a significant reduction compared to their peer without treatment, where the severity of green mold was effectively inactivated than the stem end rot on murcotts.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering III
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  10:45-12:00
Presider: Dr. Chuan-Chung Chang (Coretronic Corporation, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
10:45 - 11:15
Manuscript ID.  1097
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0503-I001
Invited Speaker:
Ching-Cherng Sun
Color Display Technology of a Near-Eye Glasses with a Lightguide System incorporated with Volume Holographic Optical Elements
Ching-Cherng Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

We present a comprehensive study focusing on a near-eye display that incorporates a lightguide seamlessly integrated with volume holographic optical elements (VHOEs). By strategically integrating VHOEs for both in-coupling and out-coupling of the projection image, we have achieved a display with vibrant and rich color representation. The inherent angular degeneracy of the VHOEs ensures uniform diffraction along the vertical axis, and leveraging wavelength degeneracy and multiplexing significantly extends the field of view (FOV) laterally within the lightguide displays. Crucially, this groundbreaking technology relies on pure optical management, highlighting its immense potential to drive the advancement of outstanding VHOE-lightguide displays for augmented reality glasses.

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11:15 - 11:30
Manuscript ID.  0304
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0503-O001
Chih-Hao Lin Design and Validation of a Low Aberration Integral Imaging System for 3D Industrial Inspection
Chih-Hao Lin, Ming-Fu Chen, Taiwan Instrument Research Institute (Taiwan); Po-Ming Lin, Taiwan Space Agency (Taiwan)

3D optical inspection is closely watched for manufacturing semiconductor products with high integration density. The 3D integral imaging system is economic but low-aberration designing is difficult. By the design process including sequential and non-sequential analysis by commercial optical design software, a low aberration integral imaging system is designed and fabricated. The all-in-focus image and the depth map of pins of SATA on a PCIe card clearly show deeper regions. However, depth estimation on regions with special patterns or with extreme gray levels are inaccurate, which will be improved by a customized lighting and a machine-learned image denoising algorithm.

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11:30 - 11:45
Manuscript ID.  0256
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0503-O002
Shao-Hsuan Wu, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Yiyao Zhang, University of Liverpool (UK); Chia-Ming Mai, Shang-Hua Yang, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Terahertz (THz) imaging has advanced significantly, finding diverse applications in various fields. Highly polarized materials' absorption coefficient limits THz imaging, but using water in the sub-THz region can help overcome this. This study explores epoxy resin (AB glue) as a diffuser for sub-THz imaging array-detector systems, offering cost-effectiveness and ease of shaping due to its high refractive index. The novel diffuser enhances sub-THz imaging resolution, making THz technology more versatile. The sub-THz diffuser light source system achieves a frame rate of at least 30 fps using a commonly available commercial rotation motor, improving real-time imaging capabilities.

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11:45 - 12:00
Manuscript ID.  0358
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0503-O003
Tsung-Han Lee Improving Optical Performance of Spherical Cooke Triplet Lens Using Meta-corrector
Tsung-Han Lee, Chen-Yi Yu, Shang-Ping Yeh, Chih-Ming Wang, National Central University (Taiwan)

In this study, we design a metalens with smaller size as 0.9 mm to consist of Cooke triplet to eliminate the aberrations at wavelength of λ = 940 nm. With this design, we successfully decreased the spot size from 349 μm to 0.533 μm, it also can efficiently pave the way for further mass production of this technology.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering IV
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  13:00-15:00
Presider: Prof. Tsung-Xian Lee (National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan) Prof. Pin Han (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
13:00 - 13:30
Manuscript ID.  0007
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-I001
Invited Speaker:
Pin Han
Spatial-Spectral correspondence relationship & Movable optical frequency ruler with optical activity
Pin Han, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

Optical frequency rulers (OFR) are suggested for use as optical wavelength or frequency references for spectra manipulation or unknown wavelength measurement. In the past, complicated mechanisms that are not easy to utilize were used to make OFR; this work introduces a simple structure to produce OFR, which should be easier to implement. The numerical results show that those spectral ticks can be moved to higher or lower wavelengths by rotating the analyzer’s angle. This scheme provides another possibility for performing movable OFR with the merit of easy usage.

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13:30 - 13:45
Manuscript ID.  0069
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O001
JUI-EN LEE Hole-Patterned Electrode Liquid Crystal Lens with Optically Compensated Bend Modes
JUI-EN LEE, Yu-Kai Hong, JUI-WEN PAN, Shie-Chang Jeng, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

A hole-patterned electrode (HPE) liquid crystal (LC) lens with positive (0 D - 0.7 D) and negative focal lengths (0 D - −1.1 D) is demonstrated. It employs an optically compensated bend (OCB) cell filled with dual-frequency LC materials and alignment films with intermediate pretilt angles. This one-layer structure with symmetric LC orientation achieves better reduction in tilt and coma aberration compared to a complicated two-layer HPE LC lens. Additionally, the use of dual-frequency switching and reduced backflow effect in the OCB cell enhances the response by about 7 times.

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13:45 - 14:00
Manuscript ID.  0287
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O002
Yuan Chen Accurate and Efficient Modeling of Polarizing Element in See-Through Birdbath Architecture: A Multi-Software Simulation Approach
Yuan Chen, Ansys China (China); Katsumoto Ikeda, Ryosuke Niitsu, Ansys Japan (Japan); Chih-hao Chen, Ansys Taiwan (Japan); Han-Hsiang (Michael) Cheng, Ansys Japan (Japan)

This report introduces an accurate and efficient simulation approach for modeling the see-through birdbath architecture, with the precise modeling of the polarizing elements. The architecture includes polarizing elements to enhance light efficiency and reduce light leakage. The workflow incorporates Ansys Lumerical for generating the essential JSON file via STACK simulation to model the anisotropic polarizing element accurately. Ansys Zemax OpticStudio is utilized for system performance check. The study highlights the crucial role of accurate polarizing element modeling in achieving optimal performance for complex see-through optical systems.

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14:00 - 14:15
Manuscript ID.  0082
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O003
Huang-Bin Su Optoelectronic Simulations of InGaN-Based Green Micro-Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes with Staggered Multiple Quantum Wells
Huang-Bin Su, Wei-Ta Huang, Tzu-Yi Lee, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Hao-Chung Kuo, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Hon Hai Research Institute (Taiwan)

In this research, we propose a green micro-resonant cavity LED with staggered InGaN MQWs, nanoporous n-GaN DBRs (NP DBR), and Ta2O5/SiO2 DBRs. Simulations show improved wavefunction overlaps of 8.8% for regular quantum well and 18.1% for staggered quantum well. Furthermore, a blue-shift reduction from 10.25 nm to 2.25 nm for regular and staggered quantum well respectively. The staggered MQWs maintain output power at high currents. Additionally, 6.5 pairs of Ta2O5/SiO2 DBRs narrows the FWHM from 40 nm to 0.3 nm, achieving a smaller divergence angle.

  Preview abstract
14:15 - 14:30
Manuscript ID.  0448
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O004
Wen-Yen Peng 2D Laser Scanning via 1D Polygon Rotation Methodology
Wen-Yen Peng, Tsung-Xian Lee, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

This study proposes a method for scanning 2D patterns using multiple blue laser diodes and a 1D rotated polygon mirror. It can further excite remote phosphors with blue laser to generate white light, thereby projecting various white light patterns. For this, we can control the size and density of the pattern by adjusting the size and number of faces of the polygon mirrors. Currently, two types of polygon mirrors, reflective and transmissive, are designed in this study.

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14:30 - 14:45
Manuscript ID.  0275
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O005
Hsiang-Ting Lin Spatial Light Modulator-based Multi-focus Matrix Manipulation
Hsiang-Ting Lin, Shao-Wei Huang, Jui-Chi Chang, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Spatial light modulator (SLM) as an active optical component to design laser phase modulation for generating a matrix of focal points. By evenly distributing the energy of the abundant laser light source among the focal points, parallel processing can be achieved, potentially improving processing speed by an order of magnitude for manufacturers. By dynamically optimizing the phase parameters based on feedback images from the focal point array, and updating the focal point array size, intensity uniformity, and focusing parameters as per application requirements, the project expects to significantly enhance the stability and versatility of laser processing.

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14:45 - 15:00
Manuscript ID.  0244
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0504-O006
Chien-Yu Chen Design and Model of Conductive Surface Layer on Polymer Wire-woven Meshes
Chien-Yu Chen, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan); Pin-Jung Lu, Borwen You, National Changhua University of Education (Taiwan); Ja-Yu Lu, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

Terahertz (THz) plasmonic devices based on metal-coated woven-wire meshes (MCWMs) have been demonstrated as biosensors [1], but their THz electronic fields of various metal or conductive surface layers are not presented yet, which correlate to conductivity, thicknesses, coverage percentages and geometry of the surface-coated layers. In this study, one theoretical model of MCWM is presented to further evaluate the possible parameters to approach artificial surface plasmonic field in 0.1–1 THz that cumulates at metal-dielectric interface of MCMW. Based on this MCWM-substrate-based THz electric field, homogeneous and inhomogeneous integration of dielectric composition are designed and demonstrated to reveal future applications.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Poster Session II
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  13:30-16:30
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)

Manuscript ID.  0978
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P001
En-Ci Gu Calculation of Chern Numbers in Spin Hall Photonic Topological Insulators by FDTD Method
Jia-Sheng Liou, En-Ci Gu, Shih-Hui Chang, NCKU (Taiwan)

Photonic systems, known for their manipulability of band structures, play a critical role in the study of topological matter. This paper investigated the topological properties of dielectric topological insulators using the spin Hall theoretical models, along with the numerical simulation method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). The influence of different excitation methods such as pseudo-spin phases, as well as the relative positions of excitation points, on the Chern number of various topological insulators is explored. These findings hold significant importance for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of Chern numbers in photonic topological matter and topological phase transitions.

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Manuscript ID.  0175
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P002
Yu-Hsun Tseng Dark Adaptation Effect on Reading Illuminance
Yu-Hsun Tseng, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Yu-Tsen Lai, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Che-Wei Chang, Ching-Yu Weng, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Moses Wei-Ren Chua, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long-term exposure to blue-enriched white light may lead to eye damages, especially for those used to reading or working under bright light. Reading illuminance may vary with multiple situations. Amongst, no study has yet investigated the effect of dark adaptation. We hence herein investigate the dark adaptation effect on reading illuminance. A lower illuminance was required when dark adaptation was applied. Initially, reading under white light requires a 33 lx. After a 5-minute dark adaptation, it decreases to 21 lx, and drops to 14 lx after 10 minutes. Moreover, utilizing candlelight shows 14 lx, 8 lx and 6 lx, respectively.

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Manuscript ID.  0279
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P003
Ting-Chun Mi, Tzu-Chen Yu, Cheng-Mu Tsai, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

This study proposes a novel freeform lens design method for beam shaping of elliptical divergent laser diode (LD) beams. Conventional beam shaping of LD beams often involves using a combination of semi-cylindrical lens arrays or deformable prism arrays to correct the elliptical beam profile and achieve a nearly circular beam. In contrast, our proposed design, using a freeform surface lens, allows for transforming LD beams into rotationally symmetric collimated beams with customizable intensity distributions, using only a single lens.

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Manuscript ID.  0775
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P004
Min-Yang Lu Measurement of Surface Contour of Large Polished Steel Plates Based on Fringe Reflectometry
Chuen-Lin Tien, Chun-Yu Chiang, Min-Yang Lu, Feng Chia University (Taiwan)

We present fringe reflectometry combined with a sub-aperture stitching technique and fast Fourier transform to measure the surface profile of a 300 mm × 150 mm polished steel plate. The 3D surface contour and radius of curvature of the large polished steel plates can be obtained. The results show that the radius of curvatures in the X-axis and Y-axis directions are -76.606 m and -77.673 m, respectively.

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Manuscript ID.  1014
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P005
Yu-Chia Chang Development of heterodyne speckle interferometer based on asymmetric design
Yu-Chia Chang, Hung-Lin Hsieh, Cheng-Yu Chung, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

Precision displacement measurement has been widely applied in various fields. In this study, we propose a speckle interference technology that can be used to measure in-plane and out-plane displacements. This technique integrates advantages of heterodyne techniques, asymmetric optical path designs, and speckle interferometry. It can provide nanometer-level in-plane and out-o-plane displacement measurement information without changing the system architecture.

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Manuscript ID.  0058
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P006
Chun-Wei Yeh Photocatalytic System Design for Formaldehyde Elimination using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis
Chun-Wei Yeh, Hsiao-Yi Lee, Hsing-Yuan Liao, National Kaohsiung University of Sciences and Technology (Taiwan)

Based on the photocatalytic principle, the study develops a portable air purifier that
utilizes the photocatalytic reaction generated by the UV-LED irradiation on titanium dioxide.
The TiO2 photocatalyst material is coated on acrylic beads with a diameter of about 1.5 mm
and attached to the irradiated surface to increase the effective area. In addition, optical design
software is used to construct a structure that optimizes the utilization of the UV LED
irradiation area. By incorporating a proper fan and using 3D printing technology, a portable
atmospheric air purifier is produced.

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Manuscript ID.  0303
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P007
Ho-Lin Tsay Partial Aperture Collimator Focus Check with Interferometer
Ho-Lin Tsay, Chi-Hou Lin, Hui-Jean Kuo, Ming-Fu Chen, Taiwan Instrument Research Institute, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan)

Collimator is popular used in optical testing in laboratory to simulate target in a distance. Glass plate with pattern is fundamental constitute of collimator focal plane, which should be placed precisely with respect to its optics. For collimator in used or to be built, it is necessary to check position of its focal plane. We develop a fast method to check focal plane position with interferometer. Results derived from this method we compared with that derived from angle deviation measurement method. Focal plane adjustment of imaging telescope can be performed with same way.

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Manuscript ID.  0859
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P008
Sheng-feng Lin Lens Centering Alignment Performance of Corrector Lens in the FORMOSAT-8 Remote Sensing Satellites Program
Sheng-feng Lin, Taiwan Space Agency (Taiwan)

The design verification phase of the FORMOSAT-8 remote sensing satellites program's telescope has been passed, paving the way for the telescope’s implementation as the payload for the multi remote sensing satellite constellation of FORMOSAT-8, i.e., FORMOSAT-8A, FORMOSAT-8B, FORMOSAT-8C, FORMOSAT-8D, FORMOSAT-8E, and FORMOSAT-8F. This paper will present the report on the lens centering alignment performance of corrector lens in the FORMOSAT-8 remote sensing satellites program.

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Manuscript ID.  1072
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P009
Kun-Wei Chao, Nai-Jen Cheng, Ting-Wei Xu, Jenq-Nan Yih, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

The quality control of optical substrates is necessary for precision manufacturing and application in various
industrial fields such as automobiles, aviation, semiconductors, displays, etc. This research develops a calculation method
to calculate the thickness and refractive index (RI) of an optical plate from a white light interference spectrum.
Considering the limitation of the resolution of the actual spectrum, this method uses 4 times the spectral resolution to
filter out the high-frequency oscillation spectral signal to determine the range of the spectrum that can be calculated.

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Manuscript ID.  0736
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P010
Cheng-Yao Chen Light-driven self-assemble of gold nanoparticles
Chia-Hao Liu, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Shang-Yang Yu, Chang Gung University (Taiwan); Yun-Cheng Ku, Cheng-Yao Chen, Mao-Kuen Kuo, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Chang Gung University (Taiwan), Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

The optical self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in a colloidal droplet caused by the irradiation of a linearly polarized laser in a microscope is studied. Different types of GNPs are used for investigation, including spherical GNPs, gold nanorods, nanocubes, and nanoplates. The self-assembly of these building blocks is induced by the optical forces due to the plasmonic effect. All the experiments are conducted in a microscopy. Through the driving optical forces and torques, these gold nanostructures assemble to form larger structures. Additionally, the photothermal effect causes annealing, leading to the transformation of the polycrystalline structure into a quasi-single crystal one.

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Manuscript ID.  0740
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P011
Yao-Sheng Yang Angular Momentum Conversion in Gold Nanoparticles Induced by Bessel Beam
Chao-Kang Liu, Yun-Cheng Ku, Yao-Sheng Yang, Mao-Kuen Kuo, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Chang Gung University (Taiwan), Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

The optomechanical behaviors of gold nanoparticle (GNP) dimer manipulated by a circularly polarized (CP) plane wave or Bessel beam are studied. Although a CP plane wave has only spin angular momentum (SAM) without orbital angular momentum (OAM), GNP dimer is driven to rotate along an orbit. The sign of orbital torque exerted on the dimer is size-dependent. Larger GNP dimers may generate a reverse rotation due to the negative optical orbital torque caused by higher-order modes. For a Bessel beam with OAM and SAM, a complicated gear motions of GNP dimer are observed. These behaviors involve the spin-orbit interaction.

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Manuscript ID.  0793
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P012
Jiunn-Woei Liaw Spin and Orbital Torques on Gold Nanoparticle Transferred from Bessel Beam
Yun-Cheng Ku, National Taiwan University (Taiwan), Chang Gung University (Taiwan); Mao-Kuen Kuo, National Taiwan University (Taiwan); Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Chang Gung University (Taiwan), Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

The motion of a gold nanoparticle (nanosphere or nanorod) driven by a Bessel beam is studied to clarify the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) and spin angular momentum (SAM) of Bessel beam are transferred to the orbital and spin torques on the nanoparticle through the scattering and absorption. The ratio of orbital torque to spin torque upon a nanorod equals that of OAM to SAM. This illustrates that a gold nanorod is an effective sensor to probe the OAM and SAM of a vortex beam without inducing coupling. In contrast, the SOI via a nanosphere is serious.

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Manuscript ID.  0012
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P013
Po-Sung Huang Optical Simulation Analysis of the effect of Bulk Scattering Diffuser on the Color Performance of Mini-LED Backlight Module
Po-Sung Huang, Jhih-Ling Syu, Shih-Hsin Ma, Feng Chia University (Taiwan)

This study investigates the color variation of mini-LED backlight modules owing to various conditioning parameters. These parameters result in changes in spectral distribution of the emitted white light owing to wavelength-dependent dispersion and absorptivity of the BSD. By employing white light color variation model, computing the color changes when the BSD and mechanical parameters are altered. As thickness increases, the white light’s color temperature change linearly (slope close to 10K/mm). As concentration increases, the white light’s color temperature changes slightly irregularly, change is within ±0.2K. The differences and ranges of color variations will be observed and compared to MacAdam ellipses.

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Manuscript ID.  0482
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P014
Chin-Yi Kuan Three Dimensional Raman Mapping Measurements of Silver Nanostructure
Chin-Yi Kuan, Chao-Sung Lai, Chang Gung University (Taiwan); Chia-Ming Yang, Chang Gung University (Taiwan), Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou (Taiwan)

A confocal Raman system is used in this study to present the three dimensional mapping results. The fabricated silver nano structures chips using thin silver layer treated with rapid thermal anneal at 400oC have good Raman results in measuring the Raman peak of 10-
6M R6G compared with the commercial chips. Two dimensional and three dimensional resultsof fabricated chips and commercial chips successfully verify the precise Z-axis positioning of the confocal Raman system.

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Manuscript ID.  0094
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P015
Yun-Hsuan Hsu Design, Fabrication, and Experimentation of Flashlights with Uniform Illuminance
Yun-Hsuan Hsu, Chao-Hsien Chen, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

Most flashlights usually provide non-uniform illumination. On the other hand, many applications do require uniform illuminance. We have designed flashlights based on optical theorem and optical software and produced real flashlights with off-the-shelf optical lenses and LED sources, resulting in sufficient uniform illuminance. To achieve uniformity with Lambertian light sources, the optical theorem shows that a constrain equation related to the slope angle of any emitted ray from the on-axis source point and its final ray height on the image plane must be satisfied. The theorem was adopted and written into an optimization program, achieving high-quality uniformity.

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Manuscript ID.  0737
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P016
Yi-Xuan Liu Fabrication of azimuthally/radially symmetric liquid crystal plates using two-step photoalignments
Yi-Xuan Liu, Cheng-Kai Liu, Shao-Hao Liao, Chi-Tang Huang, Ko-Ting Cheng, National Central University (Taiwan)

Azimuthally/radially symmetric liquid crystal panels often have problems aligning the center of symmetry during production. By using dichroic dyes methyl red and brilliant yellow to carry out a two-step photo-alignment, the adjustment process can be omitted to avoid the abrasion of the alignment film and the change of cell gap during the process.

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Manuscript ID.  0806
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P017
Shyh-Tsong Lin Single Shot Optical Sectioning Microscope for Micro-structure Measurements
Shyh-Tsong Lin, Yu-Teng Huang, Jing-Heng Lin, Chang-Ping Pu, Te-Chao Hu, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

In this research, we proposes a single-shot optical sectioning microscope and used it to measure standard step heights of 3 µm . This paper demonstrates the configuration, inspection concept, experimental setup, and experimental results of the proposed single-shot optical sectioning microscope. The contrast of the structured light is extracted using a three-step phase-shifting method. This research overcomes the illumination deficiency in traditional optical sectioning microscopes. The structured light in this experiment has the ability to perform single-shot measurements without distortion and offers higher resolution.

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Manuscript ID.  0841
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P018
Jun Kai Wei Signal Quality Improvement in Optical Communication at Varying Bit Rates using Machine Learning
Jun Kai Wei, Lina Marlina, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Muhammad Harry Bintang Pratama, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan); Shien Kuei Liaw, Jiun Yu Sung, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Hiroshi Ochi, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan)

A long-distance optical communication with a 40 Gb/s high data rate needs a dispersion compensator to fiber dispersion. The papers suggest employing a multi-layer perceptron neural network model instead to optimize WDM receiver sensitivity to improve the transmission quality.

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Manuscript ID.  0497
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P019
Sheng-feng Lin Optical Design Methodology of the FORMOSAT-8 Remote Sensing Satellites Program
Sheng-feng Lin, TAIWAN SPACE AGENCY (Taiwan)

The design verification phase of the FORMOSAT-8 remote sensing satellites program's telescope has been passed, paving the way for the telescope’s implementation as the payload for the multi remote sensing satellite constellation of FORMOSAT-8, i.e., FORMOSAT-8A, FORMOSAT-8B, FORMOSAT-8C, FORMOSAT-8D, FORMOSAT-8E, and FORMOSAT-8F. This paper will present the report on the optical design methodology of the catadioptric optical system for the FORMOSAT-8 remote sensing instruments.

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Manuscript ID.  0562
Paper No.  2023-SAT-P0502-P020
Cheng-Fang Ho Optical design of the Wide Angle Camera for the Formosa Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (FLUTE)
Cheng-Fang Ho, Taiwan Instrument Research Institute, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Yi-Chi Chang, Albert K. H. Kong, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

The optical design of the wide angle camera for the FLUTE is described. The FLUTE payload is composed of a pair of wide angle camera, for observing in UVa and VIS/NIR spectral range. Each of camera is an F/4.0 objective lens with a wide 80⁰ x 67⁰ field of view. To satisfy the scientific requirements for spatial resolution, contrast capability, spectral coverage and a rather long back focal distance, a retro-focus configuration with achromatic optical design has been adopted. The mass and volume of objective lens are considered to satisfy the payload within 5U in size, 5kg in weight.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering V
Saturday, Dec. 2, 2023  16:00-17:00
Presider: Prof. Shih-Hsin Ma (Feng Chia University, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
16:00 - 16:15
Manuscript ID.  0964
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0505-O001
Guo-Fong Hong In-Situ Pineapple Harvesting Decision and 3D Positioning Using Improved YOLOv7 with RGB-D Camera
Guo-Fong Hong, Chun-Yu Lin, Sumesh Nair, Shean-Jen Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Pineapples are an important agricultural economic crop in Taiwan, and it is also the top exported fruit from Taiwan. In pineapple cultivation, considerable human resources are required to protect pineapples from excessive solar radiation, which could otherwise lead to deterioration and impact the harvest. Therefore, this study proposes a system by which to automate the detection of unripe, export, and domestic pineapples. The proposed improved YOLOv7 architecture is capable of detecting pineapples within intricate in the pineapple fields, achieving accuracy of more than 95%, and precise pineapple harvesting is achieved through the use of the depth camera for accurate positioning.

  Preview abstract
16:15 - 16:30
Manuscript ID.  0844
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0505-O002
Jonathon David White Staff Reflections on Dynamic Whites Lighting System
Nafia Al-Mutawaly, McMaster University (Canada); Jonathon David White, Yuan Ze University (Taiwan), McMaster University (Canada)

Dynamic whites lighting systems that attempt to mimic the 24-hour changes in the intensity and spectrum of sunlight have been installed in several venues in Canada. These systems provide uniform indirect lighting throughout the room. Staff and visitors were requested to complete short surveys regarding their satisfaction with this system. The survey results were compared with a similar survey conducted for the existing lighting. While there were exceptions, the dynamic system was preferred by the majority of staff

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16:30 - 16:45
Manuscript ID.  0165
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0505-O003
Yu-Yen Tsai Optical design of Bragg reflective mirrors for EUV photolithography
Yu-Yen Tsai, Ting-Wei Chen, National Pingtung University (Taiwan)

In this article. we investigate the optical characteristics of reflective EUV mirrors for the
application of lithography for 7nm node and below. By using the conventional quarter-wavelength
stacked Bragg reflective configuration of Mo/Si multilayers centered at soft x-ray 13.5nm, the
maximum reflection is numerically computed to be approximately 0.71, which is consistent to the
typical values reported by ASML. The FWHM bandwidth is 0.7 nm. In our numerical simulation,
other potential Si-based metal reflective mirrors are also reported to replace Mo/Si stacked
multilayers in order to harvest more EUV light inside the scanners.

  Preview abstract
16:45 - 17:00
Manuscript ID.  0332
Paper No.  2023-SAT-S0505-O004
Chin-wei Lin Controlling liquid crystal droplets in aqueous solution
Chin-wei Lin, An-I Hsu, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Wang-Yang Li, CM Visual Technology Corporation (Taiwan); Shie-Chang Jeng, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) by using the light-induced dielectrophoresis are applied to control liquid crystals (LC) droplets with a velocity of 180 μm/s for a 30-μm-diameter by applying 6.5 V at 20 kHz. The ability to control anisotropy and birefringent LCs by OET is promising for finding more photonic applications.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering VI
Sunday, Dec. 3, 2023  09:00-11:00
Presider: Prof. Chun-Hung Lin (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan) Prof. Chia-Yuan Chang (National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan)
Room: 92225 (2F)
09:00 - 09:15
Manuscript ID.  0391
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O001
You-Zhen Chen Development of a non-destructive lens surface contour measurement system
You-Zhen Chen, Yuan-Yao Lin, National Sun Yat-Sen University (Taiwan)

We propose a non-destructive surface contour measurement system with the advantages of rapid measurement and low cost. It utilizes a uniform light source to measure the curvature of unknown lenses. By projecting fringe patterns onto a scattering screen and analyzing the reflected image, the system accurately determines the object's surface deviation (SAG). In the experimental results, we successfully reconstructed surface information, affirming the system's potential feasibility for practical applications. The system's non-destructive nature and accurate measurement capabilities make it a promising tool for enhancing surface inspection processes.

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09:15 - 09:30
Manuscript ID.  0772
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O002
Yi-Jiun Shen Enhancing Stain Resistance and Hydrophobicity of Zirconia Dentures with Femtosecond Laser Texturing
Yi-Jiun Shen, Chien-Hung Chen, Hung-Wen Chen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Zirconia, commonly used in dentures, is prone to staining. In this study, we introduced specific grid patterns on zirconia surfaces using femtosecond laser texturing, aiming to enhance its hydrophobicity. While untreated zirconia exhibited hydrophilic tendencies, our laser-textured designs, especially with a 0.012 mm spacing grid, achieved contact angles up to 140°. This represents a great potential for laser texturing to enhance liquid stain resistance in zirconia-based dentures.

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09:30 - 09:45
Manuscript ID.  0815
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O003
Hung-Chi Tseng Optical and electrical properties of dyed optical adhesives
Hung-Chi Tseng, Institute of Photonic System (Taiwan); Gen-Wen Hsieh, Institute of Lighting and Energy Photonics (Taiwan); Wei Lee, Institute of Imaging and Biomedical Photonics (Taiwan)

This study delves into the optical and dielectric properties of the optical adhesive NOA65 impregnated with methyl red (MR) at various concentrations. Photoisomerization behavior of the azo dye MR upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure influences its optical and dielectric characteristics. By adjusting MR concentrations, control over absorption and emission spectra is achieved. Dielectric analysis reveals intriguing redshift and blueshift tendencies, impacted by temperature and MR content. Exposure to UV induces the trans-to-cis isomerization, affecting dielectric relaxation frequencies. This comprehensive exploration sheds light on the complex interplay between MR doping, UV exposure, and dielectric behavior in NOA65, offering insights into potential

  Preview abstract
09:45 - 10:00
Manuscript ID.  0937
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O004
Hao-Yang Chuang Path Following of Tracked Vehicle via Model Predictive Control with Long Short-Term Memory Dynamic Model
Hao-Yang Chuang, Dun-Ren Liu, Chia-Wei Hsu, Shean-Jen Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Model predictive control (MPC), a potent model-based technique for autonomous vehicle path following, often grapples with computational constraints due to model linearization. In this study, we address this challenge by introducing a long short-term memory (LSTM) approach to estimate the dynamic model of the unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This LSTM-based formulation captures the UGV’s behavior within a state-space linear dynamic model. Integrating LSTM with MPC yields notable enhancements, particularly in S-curve and L-shape path-following scenarios. By mitigating the computational demands of traditional linearization, our approach shows promise in real-time implementations for optimized tracked vehicle trajectory tracking.

  Preview abstract
10:00 - 10:15
Manuscript ID.  0962
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O005
Jhen-Min Hung Obstacle Avoidance of Field Tracked Vehicles via Soft Actor-Critic with Model Predictive Control
Jhen-Min Hung, Ting-Chien Chen, Chia-Wei Hsu, Chun-Ting Sung, Shean-Jen Chen, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

Deep reinforcement learning relies on solid mathematical principles and fine-tunes network parameters through interactions with the environment. In this study, the trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance of field tracked vehicles are conducted by the soft actor-critic (SAC) agent designed with the deep-neural-network-based model predictive control (MPC). The synergy between SAC and MPC enhances adaptability and performance, enabling successful navigation in demanding scenarios.

  Preview abstract
10:15 - 10:30
Manuscript ID.  0172
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O006
Cheng-Kuan Wu Investigating the bistable optical performance of ion-doped cholesteric liquid crystals
Cheng-Kuan Wu, Kuan-Wu Lin, Heng-Yi Tseng, Li-Min Chang, Cheng-Chang Li, Chun-Ta Wang, Tsung-Hsien Lin, National Sun Yat-Sen University (Taiwan)

Bistable switching is a common technique in conventional cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs). However, our research team has previously discovered the interaction between the dielectric and the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects in ion-doped cholesteric liquid crystals. In this study, the influence of EHD and dielectric effects are investigated under different frequencies, electric fields and cell gaps. Based on the obtained results, the bistable optical performance of devices fabricated by ion-doped cholesteric liquid crystals can be further optimized.

  Preview abstract
10:30 - 10:45
Manuscript ID.  0856
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O007
Chia-Hung Hsia Research on Polarization of Two-Dimensional Liquid Crystal Grating with Simple Manufacturing Process
Chia-Hung Hsia, Bau-Jy Liang, Feng-Chia University (Taiwan)

In this study, a simple manufacturing process LC grating sample is provided. The substrate of this sample is a hexagonal substrate formed by arraying microbeads, and then a vertically aligned liquid crystal grating is fabricated using this substrate. Research shows that when unpolarized light is incident, the electrically controllable grating sample can change the intensity of diffraction and change the polarization of diffraction by changing the input voltage.

  Preview abstract
10:45 - 11:00
Manuscript ID.  0008
Paper No.  2023-SUN-S0506-O008
Yi-Kai Huang Elimination of Ghost fringe for the interferometric measurement on the catadioptric telescope
Yi-Kai Huang, Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan), Taiwan Space Agency (Taiwan); Cheng-Huan Chen, Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

The interferometry is often adopted for optical quality inspection of high precision demand catadioptric telescopes which could be used to measure the wavefront of optical system. However, vast majority of catodioptric telescopes are comprised of plural lenses and these lenses are usually closed to the image plane which may easily produce the ghost fringes during the interferometry and affect the wavefront measurement result. In order to resolve this problem, an investigation for figuring out where the ghost fringe coming from will be illustrated and a crucial optical parameter for reducing the disturbance from ghost fringe will be discussed.

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S5. Optical Design, Testing, and Engineering

Poster Session III
Sunday, Dec. 3, 2023  09:00-11:00
Room: Building of Electrical Engineering (電機系館) (B1)

Manuscript ID.  0176
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P001
Ting-Yi Wang Blue Light Effect on Blink Rate: Taking Film Watching on Computer Screen for Example
Ting-Yi Wang, Yun-An Shih, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Tun-Hao Chen, Yu-Lun Hsiao, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Moses Chua, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long exposure to blue-enriched screen backlight might damage eyes. Currently, no study discloses the effect of screen blue-emission backlight on eye strain. We hence attempted herein using blink rate to reflect the eye strain during film watching. The average blinking rate was 16 times per minute after watching the film for 90 minutes. It decreased to 12 as an effective anti-blue light orange glasses was equipped. Subjects with a high myopic diopter tended to blink more frequently; i.e. the blink rate increased from 14 to 24 as the diopter (-D) increased from 0 to 8.

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Manuscript ID.  0531
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P002
Yen-Cheng Lin Optical design and aiming system of a sniper scope
Li-PIN Lin, Yen-Cheng Lin, Wen-Shing Sun, Department of Optics and Photonics (Taiwan)

A 16x sniper scope with a 40mm objective diameter is proposed. Systems are optimized for aberrations, distortion, and chromatic issues. Tolerance analysis is conducted to ensure that the design is suitable for mass production.

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Manuscript ID.  0396
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P003
Yuan-Yao Lin Progress on developing automated surface profilometry system embedded in selective laser melting facility
Yuan-Yao Lin, You-Zhen Chen, National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan); Kuo-Kuang Jen, Ying-Sheng Huang, Yi-Cherng Ferng, Chi-Ting Ku, Yu-Wei Li, National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

We report the progress of developing a surface profilometry measurement system integrated in a powder bed laser selective melting (SLM) facility. The image capturing hardware, distortion correction and surface profile demodulation procedure were integrated to achieve automatic motionless wide-field on-line profilometry. Automatic defect identification and categorization on powder bed and solidified surface are planed.

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Manuscript ID.  0879
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P004
Cheng-Fang Cheng-Fang Ho Design of Objective Lens for a Near-eye Display Measurement System
Cheng-Fang Cheng-Fang Ho, Taiwan Instrument Research Institute, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Yi-Hsin Lin, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan); Kerson Wang, i-boson technology, Zhubei City, Hsinchu County, Taiwan (Taiwan)

With the support of National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), we are developing an optical testing system for near-eye displays (NED). This paper discuss a custom designed objective lens which is a function of effective model of human eye, captures the virtual image from the NED, delivers the required optical information for the NED testing system to evaluate the NEDs performance by emulating the human eye.

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Manuscript ID.  0958
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P005
Pei-Yu Lin Optical Design and Optimization for Collimating Single Plano-Convex Thick Lens
Pei-Yu Lin, Nai-Rong Huang, Yi-Lin Hong, Tsung-Ling Lee, Yun-Chun Chen, Pin Han, National Chung Hsing University (Taiwan)

High power LED or fiber laser require collimated light for higher accuracy. We use optical principles and optical software to calculate and simulate collimated lenses and optimize them. The study is divided into two modules: Module A is a plano-convex lens with a flat surface close to the light source and Module B is a plano-convex lens with a convex surface close to the light source. It is found that Module B is more suitable to be used in the case where the light with a full angle of 15° after passing through the lens. Its alignment is 0.956°.

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Manuscript ID.  0816
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P006
Po-Jen Ting Model-based Adaptive Optics for Remote Focusing with Heat Disturbance Elimination
Po-Jen Ting, Kai-Hsiang Wang, Jui-Tse Yang, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

In an optical microscopy system, remote focusing (RF) is achieved by adjusting the defocus term of Zernike polynomials. With a model-based adaptive optics (AO) system, we achieve both remote focusing and effective aberration compensation. In this study, the AO system employs a mathematical model based on 15 Zernike polynomials, with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) and a deformable mirror (DM) as the sensor and wavefront corrector, respectively. Combining CameraLink high speed with the real-time computational capabilities of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the system achieves a 200 Hz aberration correction rate.

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Manuscript ID.  0316
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P007
Yi-Lun Su The Compact MIR Camera Lens with 5xOptical Zoom Design
Yi-Lun Su, National Central University (Taiwan), National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Wen-Shing Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

Taiwan's geographical relationship in security, surveillance, and defense markets, long-range infrared (IR) imaging is playing an increasing role in surveillance, tracking, and targeting [1], so this paper design a compact IR camera with 5x optical zoom.

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Manuscript ID.  0403
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P008
Jen-Hsiang Yang Analysis of C2M Channel Operating at 212 Gbps: Enhancing Performance and Mitigating Inter-Symbol Interference in the system
Jen-Hsiang Yang, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (Taiwan)

The rapid growth of data-intensive applications has driven the demand for high-speed chip-to-module (C2M) channels. This study investigates the feasibility of operating a C2M channel at 212 Gbps. We focus on mitigating inter-symbol interference (ISI) and enhancing performance through the implementation of floating taps decision feedback equalization (DFE). By evaluating factors such as intrinsic noise and precise ISI correction, we aim to achieve reliable data transmission and compliance with standards. Our findings provide insights into the essential considerations for achieving efficient communication in high-speed C2M channels.

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Manuscript ID.  0023
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P009
Jyh Rou Sze Novel Spectrometer with High-Resolution and Wide Spectral Bands
Jyh Rou Sze, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); An-Chi Wei, National Central University (Taiwan); Da-Ren Liu, Chun-Fu Lin, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan)

This report develops a novel spectrometer with high-resolution and wide spectral bands. It is only necessary to quickly control the switch of the plane reflector through the linkage mechanism, and provide the user with fast switching between various spectrum bands, which not only enables the spectrometer to have high resolution, but also enables rapid detection of different spectrum bands. Compared with traditional spectrometers, the developed spectrometer does not require an expensive and precise grating rotation mechanism to expand measured range of spectral bands.

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Manuscript ID.  0372
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P010
Cheng-Kai Yao Use Tunable Mach-Zehnder Interferometer and Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Vibration Sensing
Cheng-Kai Yao, Bing-Xian Liu, Yong-Chang Xu, Chun-Hsiang Peng, Yibeltal Chanie Manie, Peng-Chun Peng, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

In this paper, the combination of a tunable Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (TMI) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is utilized to measure vibrations. By adjusting the free spectral range (FSR) of the TMI, the amplitude of the measured vibration can be changed.

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Manuscript ID.  0373
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P011
Cheng-Kai Yao Integrating Sensor and Optical Communication Systems with Bidirectional Free Space Optical Communication Transmission Channels
Amare Mulatie Dehnaw, Cheng-Kai Yao, Jun-Wei Jiang, Wen-Bo Wu, Yu-Shian Lin, Yibeltal Chanie Manie, Peng-Chun Peng, National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan)

In this paper, a novel bidirectional communication system is presented that combines optical communication and sensor networks with a hybrid of fiber and free space optical communication (FSO) transmission channels. A coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) multiplexer/demultiplexer is utilized to allow for the simultaneous transmission of optical communication signals and sensor signals.

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Manuscript ID.  0783
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P012
Ting-cheng Wen Effects of Changes in Temperature on the Lens and Analysis
Ting-cheng Wen, Shih-An Wang, Wen-Shin Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

Lens manufacturing assembly tolerance is a necessary issue for every lens optical factory, but its processing cost and optical imaging quality vary greatly from one optical factory to another with different technologies. This paper analyzes the differences of glass lenses at different temperatures and the influence of lens manufacturing and lens assembly tolerances on the image quality of the lenses.

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Manuscript ID.  0245
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P013
Yi-Lun Su Discussion and Analysis of Image Displacement Caused by Plane Flat Glass
Yi-Lun Su, National Central University (Taiwan), National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Bo-Ren Su, Feng-yi Chen, Che-Chin Chen, National Applied Research Laboratories (Taiwan); Wen-Shing Sun, National Central University (Taiwan)

This study analyzes the relationship between glass refractive index, Abbé number, and dispersion, and uses the principle of image plane displacement of flat glass to improve and enhance the resolving ability of the telecentric lens when focusing at different heights.

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Manuscript ID.  0251
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P014
Hsin-Yu Lin Design of LED Turn Auxiliary Light Fixture for Motorcycle
Hsin-Yu Lin, Hsin-Yi Ma, Hsiao-Yi Lee, National Kaohsiung University of Sciences and Technology (Taiwan)

A device designed to use six LEDs in combination with vehicle motion sensors and the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Bus protocol is proposed to improve the blind spot encountered by motorcycles when entering curves, using the PCB design software Altium Designer 17 for circuit design, and complying with ECE Regulation R10 for electromagnetic compatibility.

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Manuscript ID.  0010
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P015
Hao-Yuan Huang Study on Optimizing the Growth of Seaweed by Using New LED Light Source System
Hao-Yuan Huang, Hsing-Yuan Liao, Hsiao-Yi Lee, National Kaohsiung University of Sciences and Technology (Taiwan)

This research uses light-stimulated plant growth technology to achieve the goal of strengthening the photosynthesis of sea weed in the ocean to purify the marine ecology, and then contribute to social, economic, and academic development. By utilizing LED lighting technology, the production efficiency and quality of seaweed can be improved, thereby increasing the production of seaweed. In addition, using this technology to cultivate seaweed can also reduce the impact on the environment, such as reducing greenhouse gases. In addition, due to the higher energy efficiency of LED lighting technology, it can also reduce the energy cost of seaweed production.

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Manuscript ID.  0173
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P016
Ai-En Sung Night Light Setting Effect on Permissible Viewing Time and Clarity - Taking Laptop Screen for Example
Ai-En Sung, Ting-Jen Chiu, Pin-Yi Xin, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Wei-Zhu Lin, Feng-Rong Chen, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Moses Chua, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long exposure to blue-enriched white light might harm eyes and health. To mitigate, night-light mode has been introduced in computer operating systems. However, no research has reported its effectiveness in eye protection. We hence carried out a study regarding how its affected permissible viewing time and clarity. We found that higher night-light-setting strength led to lower screen brightness and lesser blue emission, permitting a longer viewing time and better clarity. Taking 100%, for example, it permitted 67 h viewing time with a required 3 lx to view clearly 7-pt text, while 4.4 h at the default setting with 7 lx.

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Manuscript ID.  0177
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P017
Min-Yen Liao Eye-protection effectiveness of anti-blue light contact lens
Min-Yen Liao, Yu-Ching Chang, Yu-Tong Yen, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Pin-Kuan Liu, Chia-Sheng Huang, Dipanshu Sharma, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long exposure to blue-enriched screen backlight or sunlight may cause eye diseases. Anti-blue light contact lenses have been introduced as a protective measure. However, no research has been conducted regarding their eye-protection effectiveness. Therefore, we carried out a quantitative study using a blue hazard quantification spectrometer. All colorless contact lenses investigated barely showed protection effectiveness. If tinted, a yellow one showed a high EPI of 1.5 in front of a computer screen or 1.3 under sunlight. The control part, an orange lens, exhibited an EPI of 20 indoor and 24 outdoors. We suggest reconsidering antiblue light measures for eye safeguarding.

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Manuscript ID.  0199
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P018
Chia-Hsuan Chen Illumination Effects on Projection Viewing Clarity and Time
Chia-Hsuan Chen, Cheng-Yu Chiang, Yu-Hsi Liu, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Pei-Chung Tsai, Bo-Hsun Peng, Dipanshu Sharma, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Ming-Li Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Ting Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Projection teaching is one of the teaching methods, while indoor illumination is needed for note-taking. The concern is whether this additional illumination would burden eyes. We hence investigated the effect of classroom illumination on projection viewing time. Without illumination, the permissible time was 1.1 h at 2 m, while 1 under yellowish-orange light and 0.4 under white light. It increased drastically by changing the display setting from the black text on white background to an orange text on black background. Without illumination, it was extended by 42 h, while by 3.8 under yellowish-orange light and 0.7 under white light.

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Manuscript ID.  0211
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P019
Chu-Sheng Lee Sunglasses color effect on eye-protection effectiveness and viewing clarity
Chu-Sheng Lee, Pin-Hsien Chih, Ssu-Yu Chen, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Xian-Qing Huang, Ming-Chang Shih Shih, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan); Ming-Li Chou Chou, Shu-Guang Girls' Senior High School (Taiwan); Po-Tin Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital (Taiwan); Jwo-Huei Jou, National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)

Long exposure to short-wavelength emission-containing sunlight and computer backlight might be harmful to eyes. To prevent, sunglasses is a popular option. However, no research discloses what color can provide the best protection without compromising viewing clarity. We hence performed a quantitative study for the same. We found that the typical gray one shows an eye protection index (EPI) of 17, outdoors, but with a poorest relative viewing clarity (RVC) of 77%. In contrast, an orange one shows an EPI of 9, but with a highest RVC (97%).

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Manuscript ID.  0441
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P020
Cheng-Hung Tsai Design of Freeform Secondary Lens for Comprehensive Illumination in LED Tunnel Lighting
Cheng-Hung Tsai, Feng Chia University (Taiwan); Tsung-Xian Lee, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); Shih-Hsin Ma, Feng Chia University (Taiwan)

This paper presents an optical design for tunnel lighting that incorporates a freeform secondary lens capable of accommodating counter-beam, pro-beam and symmetric lighting patterns. This design is adaptable to surrounding conditions, thereby ensuring both driving safety within the tunnel and energy efficiency. Through this approach, the safety of tunnel navigation is assured while simultaneously achieving significant energy savings.

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Manuscript ID.  0487
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P021
Pin-Jung Lu Polarization Maintained and Highly Transparent Terahertz Plasmonic Metamaterials Based on Metal-Wire-Woven Hole Arrays
Pin-Jung Lu, Yen-Shan Lin, Liang-Cheng Yu, Borwen You, National Changhua University of Education (Taiwan)

The high-frequency passed spectra of metal-wire-woven hole arrays (MWW-HAs) are presented in the frequency range of 0.1–2 terahertz (THz) and compared with those planar metal-hole-arrays (MHAs) that were perforated on various thicknesses of metal slabs. The high-frequency-passed spectra have transmittance peaks in high frequency ranges but very closing to the cut-off frequencies. The spectral peak transmittance of MWW-HAs are relatively higher that that of MHAs due to the characters of low THz resistance and polarization maintenance. The periodically corrugated metal woven wires of MWW-HAs can split the spectral transmittance peaks, performing one new THz plasmonic metamaterial.

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Manuscript ID.  0830
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P022
I-Chen Tsai Precise Phase Calibration for Spatial Light Modulator
I-Chen Tsai, Xiang-Ting Lin, Chia-Yuan Chang, National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan)

To optimize a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase modulation of lasers, start by calibrating its phase range and linearity. This ensures that the modulated intensity of calibration system corresponding to the SLM phase pattern ideally follows a period of cosine curve. After calibration, computer generated holography (CGH) technique is adopted to convert Gaussian beam intensity profile to a flat-top beam by phase modulation. This altered profile diffracts upon entering the optical system, achieving desired performance.

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Manuscript ID.  1094
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P023
Wei-Lin Chen New heterodyne light source
Wei-Lin Chen, Yu-Jheng Bai, Ming-Hung Chiu, National Formosa University (Taiwan)

We propose a novel heterodyne light source with two acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) and a half-wave plate. This architecture differs from the conventional Mach-Zehnder setup and can simplify the optical system structure for enhancing the precision and stability of the heterodyne interferometer.

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Manuscript ID.  0864
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P024
Po-Jui Chiang Inverse identification and design approach for optical waveguide analysis
Po-Jui Chiang, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan)

We introduce an inverse identification and design approach for optical waveguide analysis, tailored to specific mode or target intensity distributions. Using the finite difference method, we discretize the Helmholtz equation, reinforcing its role among mode solvers. From this foundation, we formulate a cost function and a unique gradient related to the waveguide's refractive index. Utilizing the Adam algorithm for cost function optimization, we highlight its superior efficiency in bypassing local minima, ensuring swift convergence, and eliminating the necessity for preset refractive index boundaries.

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Manuscript ID.  1112
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P025
Kai-Ren Chen Correction of Polarization Camera Based on Super Pixel Method
Kai-Ren Chen, Yung-Jeng Shyong, Chien-Cheng Kuo, National Central University (Taiwan); Meng-Chi Li, Ming Chi University of Technology (Taiwan)

In this study, we combined polarization microscopy system with color polarization camera to complete the setup of a multi-wavelength dynamic interferometer. However, the color polarization camera exhibits optical errors in its mechanical structure, Therefore, the Super Pixel method will be used in the software to correct the distribution of pixels. Using this method to enhance the accuracy of phase measurement and reduce errors in measuring thin film samples.

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Manuscript ID.  0378
Paper No.  2023-SUN-P0503-P026
Cheng-Yang Lee Smart Waste Segregation System Based on Deep Learning and Optical Pattern Recognition
Cheng-Yang Lee, National Ilan University (Taiwan); Yu-Jen Hu, National Hsin Hua Senior High School (Taiwan); Huai-Yi Chen, Huafan University (Taiwan)

An intelligent waste segregation system for fixed and deformable-shaped waste objects was designed and implemented for the first time using an upgraded double convolutional neural network (CNN) model (based on MobileNet-based single-shot multibox detectors (SSD) + MobileNet). The system's identification accuracy is higher than the conventional waste segregation design employing just a single MobileNet SSD or MobileNet network model, reaching 96.1%. Additionally, the system can still successfully recognize waste objects in settings with light levels ranging from 10 to 10,000 lux.

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